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Vitamin supplement recommended for all infants

Vitamin D

Decreases absorption of iron and may reduce blood flow through the placenta.


Caused by low iodide status during the first trimester.


Crucial vitamin required for cell division


Describes an infant who weighs less than 5.5 pounds at birth.


Also known as preeclampsia or eclamsia

Pregnancy induced hyptertension

Adequate intake for fiber during pregnancy

28 grams per day

Additional amount of protein needed during pregnancy

25 grams per day

What is prolactin?

Hormone that stimulates the synthesis of milk in the breast

What is usual aging

Refers to those changes commonly throught to be typical part of aging

Farming systems that can indefinitely maintain their productivity

Sustainable agriculture

What is alcohol dehydrogenase

Enzyme used in alcohol metabolism

High blood glucose concentration that develops during pregnancy

Gestational diabetes

Required by the fetus for growth and brain and eye development

essential fatty acids

ideal age for pregnancy


forms in the uterus to nourish the fetus


restrictive diet that systematically tests foods for allergic responce

elimination diet

vitamin that can cause fetal abnormalitites

vitamin a

hypersensitive immune response to a protein


greatest source of iron, vitamin a and folic acid for children

fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereal

recommended daily intake of essential fatty acids

at least 5 grams per day

most important role models for childrens eating habits

parents and/or caregivers

age when solid foods can be introduced to an infant

6 months

recommended first solid foods for infants

iron fortified breakfast cereals

average infant weight gain within the frist year

tripple the birth weight

contains genes originally present in another organism


amount of fluid needed for ample milk production

13 cups per day

primary cause of low birth weight in industralized countries


a birth that takes place 37 weeks of gestation is called what

pre term birth

reduces a persons life expectancy by 15 years

alcohol abuse

What are antibodies

May deplete the body of vitamin K

longest stage of the life cycle


has a cyclincal relationship to undernutrition


life stage when undernutrition poses the greatest threat


malformations of the brain or spinal cord

neural tube defects

first fluid secreted by breast that is rich in immune factors


most critical time for potential problems during pregnancy

first trimester

bacteria that is particularly dangerous in pregnancy is

Listeria Monocytogenes

Substance that may cause or increase the risk of a birth defect


recommended weight gain in pregnancy for women of normal weight

25-35 pounds

primary risk of uncontrolled diabetes during pregnancy

large fetus/baby

vitamin thought to prevent morning sickness

vitamin B 6

daily calories required for milk production

800 calories per day

organism created by genetic engirneering

genetically modified organism (GMO)

single most effective health advantage for people

safe water supply

difficulty providing enough food for everyone in the house hold

food insecurity

intake needs fall steadily after age 30 for inactive adults

total calorie

program for low income pregnant and lactating women and their young children

WIC (Special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children)

New name for the food stamp program

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

most common cause of famine

crop failure

impoverished areas with little access to healthy foods

food deserts

has the highest average life expectancy, world wide


using biological systems to alter characteristics of plants and animals


primary cause of malnutrition


contributing factors when death occurs from undernutrition

sanitation and inadequate shelter

two conditions associated with hunger in the U.S.

poverty and homelessness

major risk factor for gallbladder disease in older women


cessation of menses in women


most common type of malnutrition during adult years

iron deficiency anemia

ones pattern of living, including food and exercise choices

life style

average length of life of a person born in a specific year

life expectancy

what is famine

extreme form of chronic hunger

internal drive to find and eat food


three factors that influence aging

heridty, environment and lifestyle

source of daily food plans, tailored to age, gender, height, weight and activity level


Diet associated with lowsest recorded rates of chronic disease

the mediterranean diet

what is gluten free casein-free diet

widely used nutritional intervention with autism spectrum disorder

introducing solid foods before this age is associated with food allergies

4 months

maximum number of years a human can live

life span

manipulation of the genetic makeup of an organism

genetic engineering

main intestinal problem for older people


specific intakes of alcohol associated with health benefits

1 cup for men and a little less than 1 cup for women

percentage of world population living in developing countries

3 quarters or 75 %

adult condition that is now seen in children, related to obesity

type 2 diabetes

number of times a new food may need to be offered before a child finds it acceptable

8 to 10 times

body stores are usually depleted by 4 to 6 months of age


amount of fat needed by infants

30 grams per day

single best indicator of a childs nutritional status


adverse reaction to food that does not involve an allergic reaction

food tolerance

good way to enhance performance on a mornings test

is eating breakfast

best way to know how much to feed an infant

know the infants appeitie

age range consided to be preschool years

2 to 5 years

caregivers tactics that may reinforce picky eating behaviors

nagging, bragging, and forcing to eat

amount of calories provided per gram of alcohol

7 calories

primary site for alcohol metabolsm

the liver

represents the rank of a person among 100 peers matched for age and gender


describes infants who do not grow properly

failure to thrive

what is successful aging

function declines that occur because of age and not lifestyle

reduces risk of colon cancers and heart disease and eases constipation

dietary fibers

provtiamin that helps reduce the risk of mascular degeneration


additional calories needed during the second and third trimester

350-450 calories per day

requires instrinsic factor to be absorbed from the intestine

vitamin B 12

important contributor to childhood obesity, along with diet

physical inactivity

delay of the onset of disabilities caused by chronic disease

compression of morbidity

mineral deficiency linked to poor growth


can impede (prevent) distribution of available food

political division or war

includes roads, bridges, telephones and basic technology


There are an estimated ___ chronically undernourished people in the world.

800 million to 1.1 billion

The number one killer of children in developing countries is


The human organism is particularly susceptible to the effects of undernutrition during

Pregnancy, infancy and childhood

Bt corn has been genertically modified to make

a protein toxic to caterpillars that can destroy the corn plant

Genetically modified soybeans make up ___% of the soybeans grown in the U.S.


FDA reguires the statement "contains genetically modified ingredients" on the label of all food containing genetically modified ingredients.


Define Xerophthalmia

"Dry eye". Cause of blindness that results from a vitamin A deficiency. a lack of mucus production by the eye, which leaves it at a greater risk of damage from surface dirt and bacteria.


failing health that results from long standing dietary practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs.


Failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs.


a collection of processes that involves the use of biological systems for altering and improving the characterisitics of plants, animals and other forms of life.


extreme shortage of food, leads to massive starvation in a population; associated with crop failures, war and political unrest

Green revolution

increase in crop yields that accompied the introduction of new agricultural technologies in less developed countries, beginning in the 1960s. the key technology were high yielding, disease resistant strains of rice, wheat and corn; greater use of fertilizer and war; and improved cultivation practices.

let down reflex

a reflex stimulated by infant suckling that causes the release (ejection) of milk from milk ducts in the mothers breasts, also called milk ejection reflex.

life span

the potential oldest age a person can reach

life expectancy

the average length of a life for a given group of people born in a specific year

reverse capacity

the extent to where a organ can preserve essentially normal function despite decreasing cell number or cell activity

Poverty is linked to what?

Chronic or periodic undernutrition

Malnutrition can occur when what

When the food supply is either scarce or abundant

What is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries?


Undernutrition diminishes what?

Physical and metal capabilities

What factors contribute to the problem of undernutrition in the developing world?

Multiple factors, in densely populated countries, food resources as well as the means for distributing food may be inadequate. Farming methods often encourage erosion, which deprives the soil of valuable nutrients and therby hampers future efforts to grow food. Limited water availability hinders food production. Naturally occuring devastation from droughts, excessive rainfall, fire, crop infestations and human causes- urbanization, war and civil unrest, debt, poor sanitation, and AIDS

Food insecure

condition in which the quality, variety, and or desirability of the diet is reduced and there is difficulty at times providing enough food for everyone in the household.


the primarily physiological (internal) drive to find and eat food

food insecutiry

a condition of anxiety regarding running out of either food or money to buy more food


failing health that results from longstanding dietary practices that do not concide with nutritional needs


failing health that results from a longstanding dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs


an extreme shortage of food, which leads to massive starvation in a population; often associated with crop failures, war, and political unrest.

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formely food stamp program)

Electronic Benefit transfer (debt) cards are given to purchase food at grocery stores; the amount is based of size of household and income

the emergency food assitance program (TEFAP)

provides nutrition assistance to needy Americans through distribution of USDA food commodies

commodity supplemental food program

USDA surplus foods are distrubuted to country agencies; not found in all states; may be based on nutritional risk

special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children (WIC)

coupons are given to purchase milk, cheese, fruit juice, cereal, infant formula, and other specific food items at grocery stores; including nutrition education components. Includes new farmers markety nutrition program

National school lunch program

free or reduced price lunch is distrubuted by the school; meal follows USDA pattern based on MyPyramid; cost for the child depends on family income.

congregate meals for the elderly

free noon meal if furnished at site

home delivered meals

noon meal is delievered at no cost or for a donation 5 days a week.

Human immunodefiency virus

the virus that leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

a disorder in which a virus (HIV) infects specific types of immune system cells. this leaves the person with reduces immune function and in turn defenseless against numberous infections agents' typically contributes to a peersons death

genetic engineering

malipulation of the genetic makeup of any organism with recombinant DNA technology


organism that contains genese originally present in another organism


in humans, the developing offspring in utero from about the beginning of the third week to the end of the eighth week after conception


the egg cell from which a fetus eventually develops if the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell


the developing life form from about the beginning of the ninth week after conception until birth


an organ that forms in the uterus in pregnant women. through this organ, oxygen and nutrients from the mothers blood are transferred to the fetus and fetal wastes are removed. the placenta also releaes hormones that maintain the state of pregnancy


the fertilized ovum; the cell resulting from the union of an egg cell (ovum) an sperm until it divides


three 13-14 to 14 week periods into which the normal pregnacy (the length of a normal pregnancy is about 40 weeks, measured from the first day of the womans last menstrual period) is divided somewhat abritraily for purposes of discussion and analysis. development of the offspring, is continous through pregnancy, with no specific physiological markers demarcating the transition from one trimester to the next

spontaneous abortion

cessation of pregnancy and expulsion of the embryo or nonviable fetus prior to 20 weeks gestation. this is the result of natural causes, such as a gentic or developmental problem; also called miscarriage


the period of milk secretion following pregnancy; typically called breastfeeding


the period of intrauterine development of offspring; from conception to birth; in humans, gestation lasts for about 40 weeks after the womans previous menstrual period

low birth weight

referring to any infant weighing less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) at birth; most commonly results from preterm birth


an infant born before 37 weeks of gestation; also known as premature

small for gestational age

referring to an infants who weigh less than the expected weight for their length of gestation. this correspons to less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) in a full term pregnancy. a preferm infant who is also SGA will most likely develop some medical complications


the practice of eating nonfood items, such as dirt, laundry starch or clay

physiological anemia

the normal increase in blood volume in pregnancy that dilutes the concentration of red blood cells, resulting in anemia; also called hemodilution

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