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306 terms

Nutrition Final

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Vitamin supplement recommended for all infants
Vitamin D
Decreases absorption of iron and may reduce blood flow through the placenta.
Caffeine
Caused by low iodide status during the first trimester.
Cretinism
Crucial vitamin required for cell division
Folate
Describes an infant who weighs less than 5.5 pounds at birth.
Low-birth-weight
Also known as preeclampsia or eclamsia
Pregnancy induced hyptertension
Adequate intake for fiber during pregnancy
28 grams per day
Additional amount of protein needed during pregnancy
25 grams per day
What is prolactin?
Hormone that stimulates the synthesis of milk in the breast
What is usual aging
Refers to those changes commonly throught to be typical part of aging
Farming systems that can indefinitely maintain their productivity
Sustainable agriculture
What is alcohol dehydrogenase
Enzyme used in alcohol metabolism
High blood glucose concentration that develops during pregnancy
Gestational diabetes
Required by the fetus for growth and brain and eye development
essential fatty acids
ideal age for pregnancy
20-35
forms in the uterus to nourish the fetus
placenta
restrictive diet that systematically tests foods for allergic responce
elimination diet
vitamin that can cause fetal abnormalitites
vitamin a
hypersensitive immune response to a protein
allergy
greatest source of iron, vitamin a and folic acid for children
fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereal
recommended daily intake of essential fatty acids
at least 5 grams per day
most important role models for childrens eating habits
parents and/or caregivers
age when solid foods can be introduced to an infant
6 months
recommended first solid foods for infants
iron fortified breakfast cereals
average infant weight gain within the frist year
tripple the birth weight
contains genes originally present in another organism
transgenetic
amount of fluid needed for ample milk production
13 cups per day
primary cause of low birth weight in industralized countries
smoking
a birth that takes place 37 weeks of gestation is called what
pre term birth
reduces a persons life expectancy by 15 years
alcohol abuse
What are antibodies
May deplete the body of vitamin K
longest stage of the life cycle
adulthood
has a cyclincal relationship to undernutrition
illness
life stage when undernutrition poses the greatest threat
pregnancy
malformations of the brain or spinal cord
neural tube defects
first fluid secreted by breast that is rich in immune factors
colostrum
most critical time for potential problems during pregnancy
first trimester
bacteria that is particularly dangerous in pregnancy is
Listeria Monocytogenes
Substance that may cause or increase the risk of a birth defect
Teratogen
recommended weight gain in pregnancy for women of normal weight
25-35 pounds
primary risk of uncontrolled diabetes during pregnancy
large fetus/baby
vitamin thought to prevent morning sickness
vitamin B 6
daily calories required for milk production
800 calories per day
organism created by genetic engirneering
genetically modified organism (GMO)
single most effective health advantage for people
safe water supply
difficulty providing enough food for everyone in the house hold
food insecurity
intake needs fall steadily after age 30 for inactive adults
total calorie
program for low income pregnant and lactating women and their young children
WIC (Special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children)
New name for the food stamp program
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
most common cause of famine
crop failure
impoverished areas with little access to healthy foods
food deserts
has the highest average life expectancy, world wide
Okinawa
using biological systems to alter characteristics of plants and animals
biotechnology
primary cause of malnutrition
poverty
contributing factors when death occurs from undernutrition
sanitation and inadequate shelter
two conditions associated with hunger in the U.S.
poverty and homelessness
major risk factor for gallbladder disease in older women
obesity
cessation of menses in women
menopause
most common type of malnutrition during adult years
iron deficiency anemia
ones pattern of living, including food and exercise choices
life style
average length of life of a person born in a specific year
life expectancy
what is famine
extreme form of chronic hunger
internal drive to find and eat food
hunger
three factors that influence aging
heridty, environment and lifestyle
source of daily food plans, tailored to age, gender, height, weight and activity level
MyPlate
Diet associated with lowsest recorded rates of chronic disease
the mediterranean diet
what is gluten free casein-free diet
widely used nutritional intervention with autism spectrum disorder
introducing solid foods before this age is associated with food allergies
4 months
maximum number of years a human can live
life span
manipulation of the genetic makeup of an organism
genetic engineering
main intestinal problem for older people
constipation
specific intakes of alcohol associated with health benefits
1 cup for men and a little less than 1 cup for women
percentage of world population living in developing countries
3 quarters or 75 %
adult condition that is now seen in children, related to obesity
type 2 diabetes
number of times a new food may need to be offered before a child finds it acceptable
8 to 10 times
body stores are usually depleted by 4 to 6 months of age
iron
amount of fat needed by infants
30 grams per day
single best indicator of a childs nutritional status
growth
adverse reaction to food that does not involve an allergic reaction
food tolerance
good way to enhance performance on a mornings test
is eating breakfast
best way to know how much to feed an infant
know the infants appeitie
age range consided to be preschool years
2 to 5 years
caregivers tactics that may reinforce picky eating behaviors
nagging, bragging, and forcing to eat
amount of calories provided per gram of alcohol
7 calories
primary site for alcohol metabolsm
the liver
represents the rank of a person among 100 peers matched for age and gender
percentile
describes infants who do not grow properly
failure to thrive
what is successful aging
function declines that occur because of age and not lifestyle
reduces risk of colon cancers and heart disease and eases constipation
dietary fibers
provtiamin that helps reduce the risk of mascular degeneration
carotenoids
additional calories needed during the second and third trimester
350-450 calories per day
requires instrinsic factor to be absorbed from the intestine
vitamin B 12
important contributor to childhood obesity, along with diet
physical inactivity
delay of the onset of disabilities caused by chronic disease
compression of morbidity
mineral deficiency linked to poor growth
zinc
can impede (prevent) distribution of available food
political division or war
includes roads, bridges, telephones and basic technology
infrastructure
There are an estimated ___ chronically undernourished people in the world.
800 million to 1.1 billion
The number one killer of children in developing countries is
diarrhea
The human organism is particularly susceptible to the effects of undernutrition during
Pregnancy, infancy and childhood
Bt corn has been genertically modified to make
a protein toxic to caterpillars that can destroy the corn plant
Genetically modified soybeans make up ___% of the soybeans grown in the U.S.
90
FDA reguires the statement "contains genetically modified ingredients" on the label of all food containing genetically modified ingredients.
False
Define Xerophthalmia
"Dry eye". Cause of blindness that results from a vitamin A deficiency. a lack of mucus production by the eye, which leaves it at a greater risk of damage from surface dirt and bacteria.
Malnutrition
failing health that results from long standing dietary practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs.
Undernutrition
Failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs.
Biotechnology
a collection of processes that involves the use of biological systems for altering and improving the characterisitics of plants, animals and other forms of life.
Famine
extreme shortage of food, leads to massive starvation in a population; associated with crop failures, war and political unrest
Green revolution
increase in crop yields that accompied the introduction of new agricultural technologies in less developed countries, beginning in the 1960s. the key technology were high yielding, disease resistant strains of rice, wheat and corn; greater use of fertilizer and war; and improved cultivation practices.
let down reflex
a reflex stimulated by infant suckling that causes the release (ejection) of milk from milk ducts in the mothers breasts, also called milk ejection reflex.
life span
the potential oldest age a person can reach
life expectancy
the average length of a life for a given group of people born in a specific year
reverse capacity
the extent to where a organ can preserve essentially normal function despite decreasing cell number or cell activity
Poverty is linked to what?
Chronic or periodic undernutrition
Malnutrition can occur when what
When the food supply is either scarce or abundant
What is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries?
Undernutrition
Undernutrition diminishes what?
Physical and metal capabilities
What factors contribute to the problem of undernutrition in the developing world?
Multiple factors, in densely populated countries, food resources as well as the means for distributing food may be inadequate. Farming methods often encourage erosion, which deprives the soil of valuable nutrients and therby hampers future efforts to grow food. Limited water availability hinders food production. Naturally occuring devastation from droughts, excessive rainfall, fire, crop infestations and human causes- urbanization, war and civil unrest, debt, poor sanitation, and AIDS
Food insecure
condition in which the quality, variety, and or desirability of the diet is reduced and there is difficulty at times providing enough food for everyone in the household.
hunger
the primarily physiological (internal) drive to find and eat food
food insecutiry
a condition of anxiety regarding running out of either food or money to buy more food
malnutrition
failing health that results from longstanding dietary practices that do not concide with nutritional needs
undernutrition
failing health that results from a longstanding dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs
famine
an extreme shortage of food, which leads to massive starvation in a population; often associated with crop failures, war, and political unrest.
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formely food stamp program)
Electronic Benefit transfer (debt) cards are given to purchase food at grocery stores; the amount is based of size of household and income
the emergency food assitance program (TEFAP)
provides nutrition assistance to needy Americans through distribution of USDA food commodies
commodity supplemental food program
USDA surplus foods are distrubuted to country agencies; not found in all states; may be based on nutritional risk
special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children (WIC)
coupons are given to purchase milk, cheese, fruit juice, cereal, infant formula, and other specific food items at grocery stores; including nutrition education components. Includes new farmers markety nutrition program
National school lunch program
free or reduced price lunch is distrubuted by the school; meal follows USDA pattern based on MyPyramid; cost for the child depends on family income.
congregate meals for the elderly
free noon meal if furnished at site
home delivered meals
noon meal is delievered at no cost or for a donation 5 days a week.
Human immunodefiency virus
the virus that leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
a disorder in which a virus (HIV) infects specific types of immune system cells. this leaves the person with reduces immune function and in turn defenseless against numberous infections agents' typically contributes to a peersons death
genetic engineering
malipulation of the genetic makeup of any organism with recombinant DNA technology
transgenic
organism that contains genese originally present in another organism
embryo
in humans, the developing offspring in utero from about the beginning of the third week to the end of the eighth week after conception
ovum
the egg cell from which a fetus eventually develops if the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell
fetus
the developing life form from about the beginning of the ninth week after conception until birth
placenta
an organ that forms in the uterus in pregnant women. through this organ, oxygen and nutrients from the mothers blood are transferred to the fetus and fetal wastes are removed. the placenta also releaes hormones that maintain the state of pregnancy
zygote
the fertilized ovum; the cell resulting from the union of an egg cell (ovum) an sperm until it divides
trimesters
three 13-14 to 14 week periods into which the normal pregnacy (the length of a normal pregnancy is about 40 weeks, measured from the first day of the womans last menstrual period) is divided somewhat abritraily for purposes of discussion and analysis. development of the offspring, is continous through pregnancy, with no specific physiological markers demarcating the transition from one trimester to the next
spontaneous abortion
cessation of pregnancy and expulsion of the embryo or nonviable fetus prior to 20 weeks gestation. this is the result of natural causes, such as a gentic or developmental problem; also called miscarriage
lactation
the period of milk secretion following pregnancy; typically called breastfeeding
gestation
the period of intrauterine development of offspring; from conception to birth; in humans, gestation lasts for about 40 weeks after the womans previous menstrual period
low birth weight
referring to any infant weighing less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) at birth; most commonly results from preterm birth
preterm
an infant born before 37 weeks of gestation; also known as premature
small for gestational age
referring to an infants who weigh less than the expected weight for their length of gestation. this correspons to less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) in a full term pregnancy. a preferm infant who is also SGA will most likely develop some medical complications
pica
the practice of eating nonfood items, such as dirt, laundry starch or clay
physiological anemia
the normal increase in blood volume in pregnancy that dilutes the concentration of red blood cells, resulting in anemia; also called hemodilution
gestational diabetes
a high blood glucose concentration that develops during pregnancy and returns to normal after bith; one cause is the placental production of hormones that antagonzie the regulation of blood glucose by insulin
pregnancy induced hypertension
a serious disorder than can include high blood pressure, kindey failure, convulsions, and even death of the mother and fetus. its exact cause is not known. an adequate diet and prenatal care may prevent this disorder or limit its severty. mild cases are known as preeclampsia; more severe cases are called eclampsia
lobules
saclike structures in the breat that store milk
prolactin
a hormone secreted by the pitutary glands that stimulates the synthhesis of milk in the breast
oxytocin
a hormone secreted by the pituitary glands. it causes contraction of the muscle like cells surrounding the ducts of the breasts and the smooth muscle of the uterus
colostrum
the first fluid secreted by the breast during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth. this thick fluid is rich in immmune factors and protein
lactobacillus bifidus factor
a protective factor in the colostrum that encourages growth of beneficial bacteria in the newborns intestines
atophic disease
condition resulting from an inappropraite immune response, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergies or ecxema
teratogen
a substance that may cause or increase the risk of a birth defect.
when is the best time to prepare for pregnancy
before conception even occurs
What stages are for a successful pregnancy
healthy body weight, avoiding toxic agents, correcting nutritional deficiencies and controlling existing medical conditions
pregnancy is divided into what
three trimesters of 13 to 14 weeks
the first trimester is characterized by what
a rapid increase in cell number as the zygote grows to be an embryo, then a fetus. the growing organism is most susceptible to damage from exposure to toxic agents or nutrient deficiencies.
by the start of the second trimester
the organs and limbs have formed and will continue to grow and develop
the third trimester
is marked by rapid fetal growth and storage of nutrients in preparation for life outside the womb
Pregnancy success is defined as what
1. Gestation longer than 37 weeks. 2. Birth weight greater than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kilograms)
Factors that predict pregnancy success are what
early and regular prenatal care, maternal age within the range of 20 to 25 years and adequate nutrition
factors that contribute to poor pregnancy are
inadequate prenantal care, obesity, underweight, teenage pregnacy, smoking, alcohol consumption, use of certain prescription medications, and all illicit drugs, inadequate nutrition, heavy caffeine use and various infections such as listerioosis
Women with a healthy prepregnancy BMI (18.5 to 24. 9), total weight gain should be what
within range of 25 to 35 pounds; undernutrition women and those carrying multiple fetuses should gain more; overweight and obese women should gain less. During the first trimester, she need not to increase diet quanity, the woman should focus on diet quality to meet increased requirements for protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, fiber, water, and vitamins and minerals.
A pregnant women typically needs an addition how many kcal per day during the second and third trimester
350 t0 450 kcal per day
for the infant, the advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding are what
1. fewer intestinal, respiratory and ear infections
2. fewer allergies
3. food intolerance
benefits for the mother for breastfeeding are
1. reduced risk for certain cancers
2. earlier return to prepregancy weight.
the fetus is most susceptible to damage from nutrient deficiencies; teratogens; and use of certain medications, alcohol and illict drugs during
the first trimester
an infant born at 38 weeks gestation weighing 5.0 pounds can be described as
LBW and SGA
A food plan for a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy differs from her prepregancy diet in that
fluid needs are higher, additional solid fats and added sugars are allowed, there are more servings from the grain group
Which of the following may help to alleviate nausea during pregnancy
Postponing use or iron supplements until the second trimester
which of the following conditions medically prevents a woman from breastfeeding her infant
infants have galactosemia
physiologically, milk production reguires __ kcal per day
800 kcal per day
percentile
classification of a measurement of a unit into divisions of 100 units
allergy
a hypersensitive immune response that occurs when immune bodies produced by us react with a protein we senese as foreign (as an antigen)
early childhood caries
tooth decay that results from formula or juice (and even human milk) bathing the teeth as the child sleeps with a bottle in his or her mouth. the upper teeth is mostly affected as the lower teeth are protected by the tongue; formerly called nursing bottle syndrom and baby bottle tooth decay
menarche
the onset of menstration. menarche usually occurs around age 13. 2 or 3 years after the first signs of puberty start to appear
anaphylatic shock
a severe allergic response that results in lowered blood pressure and respiratory and gastrointestinal distres. this can be fatal
antigen
any substance that induces a state of senesitivity or resistance to microogranisms to toxic substances after a lag period; substance that stimulates a specific aspect of the immune system
elimination diet
a restrictive diet that systematically tests foods that may cause an allergic respose by first eliminating them for one to two weeks and then adding them back, one at a time
inadequate intake of which of the following results in poor growth
calories. iron and zinc
introduction of cows milk should be delayed until 12 months of age because
contains too much protein
you are trying to introduce an apple and blueberry puree to a seven month old infant and she rejects it. you should
offer the food again on another day
milk is a nutrient dense source of all of the following except
iron
a gluten free, casein free diet may be used to treat
autism
to ensure adequate vitamin and mineral intake for a picky eater,
provide a fortified breakfast cereal
for treatment of overweight, school age children you should
exercise for 60 mins per day or more
aging
time dependent physical and physicological change in body structure and function that occurs normally and progressively throught adulthood as humans mature and become older
reserve capacity
the extent to which an organ can preserve essentially normal function despite decreasing cell number or cell activity
kidney nephrons
the units of kidney cells that filter wastes from the bloodstream and deposit them into the urine
glycosylation
the process by which glucose attaches to glycates other compounds such as proteins
compression of morbidity
delay of the onset of disabilities caused by chronic disease
life span
the potential oldest age a person can reach
life expectancy
the average length of life for a given group of people born in a specific year
menopause
cessation of menses in women, usually start at age 50
ostomy
sugically created short circuit in intestinal flow where the end point usually opens from the abdominal cavity rather than the anus
sarcopenia
in general, loss of muscle tissue. among older adults this loss of lean mass increases their risk of illness and death
sarcopenic obesity
loss of muscle mass accompained by gains in fat mass
ethanol
chemical term for the form of alcohol found in alcoholic bevarages
alcohol dehydrogenase
an enzyme used in alcohol metabolism that converts alcohol into acetaldehyde
cirrhosis
loss of functioning liver cells, are replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue, any substance that posions liver cells can lead t ocirrhosis.
alcohol dependence
the person experiences repeated alcohol related difficulties, inability to control use, spending great deal of time associated with alcohol used, continued use of alcohol dispite physical, etc
alcoholism
as defined by the american medical association, illness characterized by significat impairment direclty related to persistend and excessive use of alochol
tumor
mass of cells may be cancerous (malignant) or noncanerous (benign)
beneign
noncancerous; tumors that do not spread
maligant
malcious; in reference to a tumor, property of spreading locally and to distant sites
metastasize
the spreading of disease from one part of the body to another, even to parts of the body that are remote from site of original tumor
endometrium
the membrane that lines the inside of the uters. increases in thickness during the menstrual cycle until ovulation occurs.
nitrosamine
carcinogen formed from nitrates and breakdown products of amino acidsl can lead to stomach cancer
among the older population of the U.S. that age of the fastest growing segment is __ years
85+
the diets of adults tend to be low in___
vitamin e, calcium and fiber
the reason the incidence of obesity increases with age is that
the basal metabolism rate decreases with age, physical activity often decreases with age and energy intake exceeds energy expenditure
the immune system becomes less efficieny with age, s oits especially important to consume adequate __ and __ nutrients that contribute to immune function
protein, zinc
which of the following accurately portrays a theory about the causes of aging
excess free radicals damage cell components
to maintain optimal nutritional status and healthy weight, the diet of an older person should have __ nutrient density and be __ in energy content
high; moderate
nutrition programs such as congregate meals or home delivered meals provide which of the following
improved nutritional status, social atmoshphere, and an economical meal for low income eldery
during aging the needs for vitamins and minerals
somewhat increases in some cases
alcohol is digested in the
none of the above; alcohol requires no digestion
alcohol is most damaging to the
liver cells where alcohol is metabolized.
there are a estimated ___ chronically undernoirished people in the world
800 million to 1.1 billion
the number one killer of children in developing countries is
diarrhea
the human organism is particularly susceptible to the effects of undernutrtion during
pregnancy, infancy, and childhood
the fetus is most susceptable to damage from nutrient deficiencies; teratogens; and use of certain medications, alcohol and illict drugs during
the first trimester
milk is a nutrient dense source of all of the following excepct
iron. it has protein, calcium and zinc
during aging, the needs for vitamins and minerals
somewhat increase in some cases
obesity
excess accumulation of body fat (men more than 22%, women more than 32%)
*has adverse health effects, increasing in U.S. and increase in chronic diseases (hypertension, stroke, heart attack)
methods used to measure body fat
*Calipers: measure skin folds at 7 different sites, need trained technician
*Underwater weighing: body density and calculate body fat by measuring water displacement
*Bod Pod: measures air displacement
*Dexa: tells body fat percentage; can also measure bone density
*bio electrical impedance: technique used for measuring body fatness by measuring body's electrical conductivity.
Body mass index
describes relative weight for height --> weight (kg)/height (meters squared) or
weight (lb)/height (inches squared)x705
*Underweight= less than 18.5
*Normal weight= 18.5-24.9
*Overweight: 25-29.9
*Obesity: over 30
ecological model of diet, physical activity and obesity
influences directly effect behaviors, behaviors affect energy balance, energy balance affects body weight, fat and distribution
*biological/demographic: age, sex, SES
*psychological: beliefs, self-efficacy, body image, motivation
*Social/cultural: social support, family factors
*Organizational: practices, norms and policies at work sites, schools, etc.
*Physical environment: access to foods and recreational facilities, urban design
*Policies/incentives: cost of food, physical activity and sedentary behaviors
*40% genetics and 60% environment*
Health Risks of Obesity
diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, restrictive lung disease
waist circumference & disease incidence
*cut points: men at 102 (40in) cm and women at 88 (35in) cm
*directly related to BMI, increases risk for diabetes, hypertension, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance (pre-diabetes), dyslipidemia (abnormal blood lipids)
Obesity treatment
2 steps: assessment and management
*assessment: measure BMI/waist circumference; evaluate disease condition; assess patient readiness (attitude toward weight loss, ability to increase activity level, support, life circumstances); eating habits (usual diet, binge eating, previous weight loss attempts)
*Management: nutrition, behavior modification, physical activity, maintenance--> 5-10% weight loss for 6 months
estimated energy expenditure
*BMR: affected by age, height, growth, body composition, stress, fasting, thyroxine; 50-65%
*Thermic effect of food: protein has greatest thermic effect; 5-10% (thermogenesis=generation and release of body heat associated with breakdown of body fuels)
*Physical activity: most variable, factor we have the most control over; 25-50%
estimated energy requirement
established by dietary reference intake committee, based on gender, age, physical activity level, height and weight
Health benefits of weight loss
Decreased cardiovascular risk, balanced glucose and insulin levels, lower blood pressure, lower LDL and triglyceride levels, less severity of sleep apnea, fewer symptoms of degenerative joint disease, improved gynecological conditions, and higher HDL levels

*all with 5-10% body weight loss*
Government nutrition initiatives
*Change food labels: make calories more visible, include % daily value for calories, increase claim accuracy, meaningful/appropriate serving size.
*Calorie information at restaurants: implementation and enforcement date not set, restaurants w/ 20+ locations need to provide 2,000 calorie references
*Consumer education and NY city campaigns (small steps)
*FDA guidance in developing obesity treatment drugs and cooperative obesity research
Eating disorder causes
*Psychological Factors: low self-esteem, body image, feeling of lack of control, depression, anxiety, anger, loneliness
*Interpersonal Factors: troubled relationships, difficulty expressing emotions, history of being teased based on weight, history of abuse
*Social Factors: "perfect body" pressures, definitions of beauty, media images
*Biological (genetic), biochemical (associations w/ anxiety and anorexia) factors
Eating Disorder effects
decreased metabolism (anorexia and bulimia), decreased bone density (due to menstrual irregularity), poor temperature regulation, loss of brain function, loss of sex drive (testosterone and estrogen levels lowered)
Disordered eating
attitudes that lead to rigid eating and exercise patterns; not extreme enough to be classified as an eating disorder
Female athlete triad
1) Low energy availability: w/ or w/out disordered eating; refers to energy available after everyday activities and consumption for body function; can be inadvertent or willful
2) Amenorrhea: chronic low energy availability, not due to exercise but rather inadequate calorie intake
3) Osteoporosis: low estrogen levels, no bone growth or maintenance of bone density, bone density irreversibly lost
female athlete triad treatment/help strategies
*recognize what you do/don't have power over
*don't focus on eating/weight, focus on individuals and your concern
*important for individual to feel loved and supported
*avoid fat talk
*get support for yourself
effect of dietary cholesterol/fat on blood lipids
*Cholesterol: increases total cholesterol and LDL in most people
*Saturated fat: increases total cholesterol and LDL in all people
*Polyunsaturated: decreases total cholesterol, LDL and HDL
*Monounsaturated: decreases total cholesterol, LDL and no effect on HDL
*Trans Fatty Acids: as harmful as saturated fat
*Excessive simple carbohydrate intake decreases HDL and increases triglycerides.
Preventing Coronary heart disease
unsaturated fats instead of trans/saturated fats, increase consumption of omega-3 fatty acids from plant sources & fish oil, consume a diet high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains
Metabolic syndrome
Central obesity combined with any 2 or more of the following: high fasting blood glucose (insulin resistance), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, low HDL and elevated blood troglycerides.
*Risk Factors: central obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, pre-diabetes, hypertension
*Diet Therapy: 45% CHO, 40% fat (5-10% saturated), 15% protein
Hypertension (primary vs secondary, risk factors, treatment)
*Primary: elevation of blood pressure w/out accompanying disease; 140/90 defines high blood pressure
*Secondary: elevation of blood pressure that accompanies some other disorder
*Risk Factors: smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, race, age, stress
*Treatment: regular aerobic exercise, weight loss, limit alcohol intake, stop smoking, adequate calcium, potassium and magnesium intake
*prehypertension: borderline blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/80 mm of mercury; indication that hypertension is likely to develop in the future.
DASH diet
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
*rich in low fat dairy products, high in fruits and vegetables, low in saturated fat/cholesterol
*Dash low sodium: same as DASH, but w/ 1500 mg sodium, more effective at lowering blood pressure, but more difficult to follow
*30-60 mins/day of exercise, reqular aerobic activity, no more than 1 alcoholic drink/day, want potassium/calcium/magnesium to help regulate blood pressure.
Diabetes (type 1,2, pre-diabetes, gestational diabetes, symptoms
*Type 1: before age 30, produce little/no insulin
*Type 2: usually after 40, high insulin levels, tissue can't absorb insulin that is produced
*Pre-diabetes: higher than normal fasting blood sugar but not high enough to diagnose diabetes
*Gestational (GDM): acquired during pregnancy
*Symptoms: frequent urination causes dehydration which increases thirst, excessive eating (little/no glucose reaching cells), fatigue (elevated blood glucose), weight loss (cells breaking down protein/fat for energy b/c glucose isn't being absorbed by cells)
*Treatment: diet, exercise, self-monitoring, medications
insulin resistance & hyperinsulinemia
*Insulin resistance: due to aging, obesity, and genetics, leades to hyperinsuliemia
*Hyperinsulinemia: beta cells in pancreas over-produce insulin, causes impaired glucose intolerance and diabetes develops
diabetes complications
*Macrovascular (large blood vessels): heart disease, amputations, poor wound healig
*Microvascular (small blood vessels): blindness, kidney disease
calorie and protein needs in pregnancy
*increase in 2nd (340 calories) and 3rd trimester (450 calories) from nutrient dense foods
*teenagers, underweight, and active women need more calories
*additional 25 g of protein a day above RDA
Vitamin needs in pregnancy
*Thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin: slight increases
*Folate: needed for blood production, cell growth, prevention of NTDs; RDA doubles during pregnancy; 600 micrograms/day
*B12: activates folate so increased consumption is needed, RBC synthesis
*Vitamin D: used for bone development, protect against abnormal fetal bone development
Mineral needs in pregnancy
*Calcium: increased intake helps conserve maternal bone while meeting fetal needs, increased absorption during pregnancy so no big increase in intake(1000-1300 mg/day)
*Iron: supports increased blood volume, provides for placental/fetal needs, supplements recommended (28g per day)
*Zinc: needed for DNA/RNA synthesis, protein synthesis
*Supplementation: iron during 2md and 3rd trimester, get vitamins/minerals from diet first, take a multivitamin if inadequate diet/poor eating habits.
Weight gain and pregnancy
Rate of weight gain: 2-4 lbs in first trimester and 0.5-1 lb/week during 2nd and 3rd trimester
*underweight: rec weight gain of 28-40 lbs
*normal weight: rec weight gain of 25-35 lbs
*overweight: rec weight gain of 15-25 lbs
*obese: high risk for complications, GDM, hypertension, rec weight gain of 11-20 lbs
Nutrient Related concerns in pregnancy (nausea, constipation, heartburn)
*Nausea: hormonal changes lead to sensitivity to apperance, texture, and smell of food; cope by eating small/frequent meals, avoid greasy/spicy/rich foods, get up slowly
*Constipation: hormones alter muscle tone and growing infant crowds internal organs; cope with high fiber foods and plenty of fluids
*Heartburn: growing infant puts pressure on stomach causing acid to back up; cope by relaxing and eating slowly, consuming small meals, don't overeat, dress comfortably, avoid fluid with meals, fatty foods, peppermint, spearmint and chocolate (weaken stomach valve)
Benefits of Breastmilk
Immune Function (colustrum and reduced risk of infection), easily digested, energy nutrient balance (lipids), excellent source of nutrients (except for Vitamin D), reduces childhood obesity risk
*Have for first 6 months exclusively and continue to breast feed through 12 months*
*CHO in breast milk (lactose) helps with calcium absorption, lipids are main source of energy (linoleic & linolenic), protein is easily digested and helps with iron absorption, not high in Vit D (use supplements)
Lactation
*mother produces 25 oz/day
*need additional 500 calories for lactation (330 from diet and 170 from pregnancy weight gain)
*Fluid: drink one glass of water w/ meals and each time the baby nurses
*Iron: may require supplementation (9g/day)
thermal stress
adjusting to new environment after birth
*infants need 130 calories/kg body weight
Pregnancy health risks
*gestational diabetes: abnormal glucose intolerance appearing during pregnant; high risk of developing diabetes later on in life
*gestational hypertension: resolves after birth
*Preeclampsia: dangerous condition in pregnancy w/ edema, hypertension and protein in the urine; can develop into eclampsia (seizures occur)
Supplements
Less regulated, some are safe, others are dangerous in potency and can react with other drugs
*Usage: age= most important factor (used by elderly, body building supplements used more with younger people
*Top sellers: garlic (1), ginseng, echinacea, ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort
*Regulation: little/no safety testing, underreported reactions, troublesome interactions, no required warnings (side effects), unreported problems (manufacturers don't have to report problems)
Ginseng
helps with concentration, work capacity, energy and decreasing stress; potency depends on drying method
*side effects: nervousness/excitation for first 4 days
*don't use if hyper-intensive (could increase blood pressure further)
Echinacea
*Used to help treat colds, not prevent (immune stimulant)
*should not take if HIV+/have an autoimmune disease, don't use longer than 8 weeks, reported GI problems
*Powder, tea, drop, purpurea (most potent) forms
Gingko
*improves cerebral and peripheral blood flow (older adults), boost cognitive function, improve short term memory loss, prevent headache.
*Don't take w/ blood thinners; may cause restlessness/GI disturbances
*pill form; #1 in germany
Garlic
*high cholesterol and high blood pressure (no evidence-->pill or paste form)
*Side effects: heartburn, gas, sweating, bad breath
*could interfere with blood clotting medications
St. John's wort
*mild anxiety and depression; pill or tea form
*may cause skin photosensitivity, GI upset
*don't combine with antidepressants
A,E,D,K
fat soluble vitamins; stored by body
B, C
water soluble vitamins; not stored by body so must be eaten daily
amino acids
What are proteins composed of?
essential amino acids
Must be eaten as food; easily found in animal products
nonessential amino acids
Body manufactures these amino acids
complete protein
contains all essential amino acids; found in animal products
incomplete protein
contains only some essential amino acids; found in plant products; important for the vegan diet
fiber
cellulose; for dietary regularity
Sugar classifications
mono saccharides and di saccharides
Fat
nutrient; most concentrated food energy source; 9 calories per gram
Carbohydrate classifications
sugars, starches (polysaccharide), cellulose
fat classifications
saturated (animal sources; reduce in diet) and unsaturated
classifications of unsaturated fat
plant sources - monounsaturated (best to consume; olive oil and canola oil) and polyunsaturated
calorie
measure of food energy
milk/dairy
food source of calcium
vitamin D
works with calcium for strong bones; added to milk
vitamin A, retinol
found in deeply colored veggies; essential for good night vision; converted from carotene
sunshine
nonfood source of vitamin D
vitamin B
complex of vitamins, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folacin
cholesterol
needed and manufactured by the body; abundance may lead to heart disease
scurvy
deficiency of vitamin C
vitamin C
source citrus fruit
Nutrients
Carbohydrates, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Protein, Water
Water
Most plentiful nutrient
Classes of Protein
Complete, Incomplete
Incomplete Protein
Plant sources
Fat
Most concentrated energy source
Complete proteins
All essential amino acids - come from animal sources
Classes of Fat
Saturated - animal sources
Unsaturated (monoun and polyun) - plant sources
Iodine deficiency
Goiter - thyroid gland
Calcium - fluorine
important for bones and teeth
Iron deficiency
Anemia
source of iodine
Salt
Calorie
Measure of food energy
needed for good night vision
Vitamin A, retinol
Saturated fat (animal products)
Limit in your diet
Polysaccharide
Starch
Dehydration
lack of water