Photosynthesis & Respiration
the process where organisms convert sugar into ATP (energy the body can use)
what goes into the reaction
what is made during a reaction
the process where plants use carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun to make food (and oxygen) (happens in the chloroplast)
an organelle in plant cells; where photosynthesis happens
absorbs light energy from the sun (in chloroplasts)
light energy, carbon dioxide, and water
sugar and oxygen
factors that affect photosynthesis
amount of light, amount of carbon dioxide, and temperature
light energy + water + carbon dioxide ⇒ oxygen + sugar
light energy + H2O + CO2 ⇒ O2 + C6H12O6
where respiration happens
energy the body can use
oxygen + sugar ⇒ water + carbon dioxide + ATP
O2 + C6H12O6 ⇒ H2O + CO2 + ATP
all energy for living things originally comes from this
another term for a producer
another term for a consumer
the main energy molecule for cells
a main food molecule that gets digested into glucose
what is used in a chemical reaction
what is produced in a chemical reaction
6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP
the organelle where photosynthesis takes place
the organelle where cellular respiration takes place
flattened discs containing chlorophyll, where the light dependent reaction occurs
stacks of thylakoids
solution surrounding the granum in chloroplasts, where the light independent reaction occurs
the first reaction in photosynthesis, light and water combine to create oxygen, ATP, and NADPH
the second reaction in photosynthesis, ATP, NADPH, and carbon dioxide combine to create glucose
the cycle that occurs in photosynthesis where glucose is made
the cycle that occurs in cellular respiration where ATP is made
the space inside the cristae of the mitochondria
stage one of respiration, where glucose is broken down
the type of respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen
the type of respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen
the second stage of cellular respiration
the second stage of cellular respiration when not enough oxygen is present
the type of fermentation that causes sore muscles
the type of fermentation that yeast uses to make bread
the green pigment found inside the thylakoid
ATP and NADPH
what are made in the light dependent reaction and used in the light independent reaction
light and water
what is used in the light dependent reaction
what is released as a waste at the end of the light dependent reaction
what is produced by the light independent reaction
3.3 What does ATP stand for?
3.3 What is the main function of ATP?
Energy carrying molecule (able to release energy)
3.3 How is energy released from ATP?
The bond between 2 phosphate groups is broken
3.3 What are the 3 parts of an ATP molecule?
1 Nitrogenous Base(adenosine), 1 Sugar(ribose), 3 Phosphate groups
3.3 Which bond in an ATP molecule releases the most energy when broken?
The last bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group.
3.3 How does ATP turn into ADP?
ATP loses a phosphate group, energy is released.
3.3 How does ADP turn back into ATP?
ADP adds a phosphate group back on, energy is required/used.
3.3 Energy is stored in bonds. What are some molecules that store energy in this unit?
ATP, NADPH, FADH2, Glucose...
3.1 What is the purpose of photosynthesis?
To make food/glucose/chemical energy for the plant by using Sunlight, Water, and Carbon Dioxide .
3.1 In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?
3.1 What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6 H2O + 6 CO2 --> 6 O2 + C6H12O6
6 Water + 6 Carbon Dioxide -> 6 Oxygen + Glucose
3.1 What are the 2 reactants in photosynthesis?
Carbon Dioxide and Water
3.1 What are the 2 products in photosynthesis?
Oxygen and Glucose
3.1 What is the source of energy that plants use to complete the reactions of photosynthesis?
3.1 What are the 2 parts of photosynthesis?
Light Dependent Reaction and Calvin Cycle(or Light Independent Reaction or Dark Reaction)
3.1 What does the LDR produce that is a byproduct/waste?
What does the LDR produce that is used by the Calvin Cycle/LIR/DR?
- ATP & NADPH(used by CC, LIR, DR)
3.1 Where does the oxygen byproduct originate from in the photosynthesis reaction?
Water molecules (H2O)
3.1 Where does the Carbon in Glucose originate from in the photosynthesis reaction?
Carbon Dioxide Molecules (CO2)
3.1 What fuels/provides energy for the Calvin Cycle/LIR/DR?
ATP and NADPH from the Light Dependent Reaction
3.1 If Water or Carbon Dioxide were removed from the plant's environment, what would happen to glucose production?
It would slow down and eventually stop making glucose because it ran out of reactants.
3.2 What is the ultimate goal of cellular respiration?
To convert food(glucose, proteins, lipids) into a usable form of energy - ATP!
3.2 In which organelle does Cellular Respiration take place?
3.2 A cell that contains numerous mitochondria would probably be performing what process: Photosynthesis or Cellular Respiration?
3.2 What is the chemical equation for Respiration?
C6H12O6(glucose/nutrients) + 6O2(oxygen) --> 6CO2(carbon Dioxide + 6H20(water) + ATP(energy)
3.2 What are the 3 steps of aerobic respiration in order?
1. Glycoloysis 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport
3.2 Aerobic Respiration occurs when ____ is present.
3.2 Anaerobic Respiraction occurs when ___ is present.
3.2 Where does Glycoysis take place?
3.2 What is the purpose/end result of Glycolysis?
Break glucose into Pyruvic Acid(pyruvate) and make few ATP.
3.2 What is the main reactant for Kreb's Cycle(Citric Acid Cycle) during aerobic respiration?
Pyruvic Acid (pyruvate)
3.2 What is the main product released during Kreb's Cycle?
CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
3.2 What are the main reactants for Electron Transport Chain? Where did they come from?
- NADH & FADH2
- Kreb's Cycle
3.2 What products are created by the ETC (electron transpprt chain)?
- Energy (ATP)
- H2O (water)
3.2 What are the overall products created in aerobic respiration?
Carbon Dioxide, Water, and ATP (energy)
3.2 Which part of aerobic respiration produces the most ATP: Glycolysis, Kreb's, or ETC?
ETC electron transport chain
3.2 Aerobic Respiration creates the most ATP! What is the net gain of ATP created by this process?
36 - 38
3.2 Aerobic Respiration normally makes ATP, but what takes over when Oxygen is not present?
Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) replaces Aerobic Respiration temporarily.
3.2 Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) creates FEW ATP and potentially what other products?
- Lactic Acid
- Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide
3.2 Alcholoic Fermentaion produces Ethyl Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide. What microorganisms can perform this process?
Yeast and Bacteria
3.2 Lactic Acid Fermentation produces lactic acid. Which type of cells typically have more lactic acid build-up in the human body?
Overall ________ makes food and stores energy using the sun, and _______ breaks down food molecules to release energy in the form of ATP.
process that organisms use to convert the sun's energy into food
process that organisms use to convert chemical energy (food) into ATP
Process of using substances other than the sun into food.
organisms that use sunlight to build food
organisms that use chemicals instead of sunlight to build food.
adenosine triphosphate. Energy currency with 2 high energy bonds.
adenosine diphosphate. Energy currency with 1 high energy bond.what ATP turns into after it loses a phosphate
"light dependent reaction" Takes place in the thylakoid. Sunlight is tapped in the chlorophyll powering this step of photosynthesis. Can only take place when there is light.
flattened membrane sacs found in a chloroplast
area surrounding the thylakoids in a chloroplast
compound that absorbs light
diffusion of protons through an ATP synthase resulting in ATP
when carbon is added to an organic substance
anaerobic respiration. Respiration without using oxygen.
lactic acid fermentation
Happens in your muscle cells when you exercise hard and can't get oxygen to your muscles fast enough. Causes muscle cramps and soreness. Also is used in making yogurt and cheese.
Carried out by yeast and bacteria. Used in brewing beer, making wine, and baking bread.
Also known as the light independent reactions. Takes place in the stroma and includes the Calvin Cycle. This is where carbon dioxide is fixed to form glucose.
Splitting glucose to form 2 pyruvate molecules.
Citric Acid Cycle
Krebs cycle. Occurs in the mitochondria. Creates 1 ATP, 2 Carbon dioxide, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH.