the process where plants use carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun to make food (and oxygen) (happens in the chloroplast)
the first reaction in photosynthesis, light and water combine to create oxygen, ATP, and NADPH
the second reaction in photosynthesis, ATP, NADPH, and carbon dioxide combine to create glucose
ATP and NADPH
what are made in the light dependent reaction and used in the light independent reaction
3.3 What are the 3 parts of an ATP molecule?
1 Nitrogenous Base(adenosine), 1 Sugar(ribose), 3 Phosphate groups
3.3 Which bond in an ATP molecule releases the most energy when broken?
The last bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group.
3.3 Energy is stored in bonds. What are some molecules that store energy in this unit?
ATP, NADPH, FADH2, Glucose...
3.1 What is the purpose of photosynthesis?
To make food/glucose/chemical energy for the plant by using Sunlight, Water, and Carbon Dioxide .
3.1 What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6 H2O + 6 CO2 --> 6 O2 + C6H12O6
6 Water + 6 Carbon Dioxide -> 6 Oxygen + Glucose
3.1 What is the source of energy that plants use to complete the reactions of photosynthesis?
3.1 What are the 2 parts of photosynthesis?
Light Dependent Reaction and Calvin Cycle(or Light Independent Reaction or Dark Reaction)
3.1 What does the LDR produce that is a byproduct/waste?
What does the LDR produce that is used by the Calvin Cycle/LIR/DR?
- ATP & NADPH(used by CC, LIR, DR)
3.1 Where does the oxygen byproduct originate from in the photosynthesis reaction?
Water molecules (H2O)
3.1 Where does the Carbon in Glucose originate from in the photosynthesis reaction?
Carbon Dioxide Molecules (CO2)
3.1 What fuels/provides energy for the Calvin Cycle/LIR/DR?
ATP and NADPH from the Light Dependent Reaction
3.1 If Water or Carbon Dioxide were removed from the plant's environment, what would happen to glucose production?
It would slow down and eventually stop making glucose because it ran out of reactants.
3.2 What is the ultimate goal of cellular respiration?
To convert food(glucose, proteins, lipids) into a usable form of energy - ATP!
3.2 A cell that contains numerous mitochondria would probably be performing what process: Photosynthesis or Cellular Respiration?
3.2 What is the chemical equation for Respiration?
C6H12O6(glucose/nutrients) + 6O2(oxygen) --> 6CO2(carbon Dioxide + 6H20(water) + ATP(energy)
3.2 What are the 3 steps of aerobic respiration in order?
1. Glycoloysis 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport
3.2 What is the purpose/end result of Glycolysis?
Break glucose into Pyruvic Acid(pyruvate) and make few ATP.
3.2 What is the main reactant for Kreb's Cycle(Citric Acid Cycle) during aerobic respiration?
Pyruvic Acid (pyruvate)
3.2 What are the main reactants for Electron Transport Chain? Where did they come from?
- NADH & FADH2
- Kreb's Cycle
3.2 What are the overall products created in aerobic respiration?
Carbon Dioxide, Water, and ATP (energy)
3.2 Which part of aerobic respiration produces the most ATP: Glycolysis, Kreb's, or ETC?
ETC electron transport chain
3.2 Aerobic Respiration creates the most ATP! What is the net gain of ATP created by this process?
36 - 38
3.2 Aerobic Respiration normally makes ATP, but what takes over when Oxygen is not present?
Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) replaces Aerobic Respiration temporarily.
3.2 Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) creates FEW ATP and potentially what other products?
- Lactic Acid
- Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide
3.2 Alcholoic Fermentaion produces Ethyl Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide. What microorganisms can perform this process?
Yeast and Bacteria
3.2 Lactic Acid Fermentation produces lactic acid. Which type of cells typically have more lactic acid build-up in the human body?
Overall ________ makes food and stores energy using the sun, and _______ breaks down food molecules to release energy in the form of ATP.
adenosine diphosphate. Energy currency with 1 high energy bond.what ATP turns into after it loses a phosphate
"light dependent reaction" Takes place in the thylakoid. Sunlight is tapped in the chlorophyll powering this step of photosynthesis. Can only take place when there is light.
lactic acid fermentation
Happens in your muscle cells when you exercise hard and can't get oxygen to your muscles fast enough. Causes muscle cramps and soreness. Also is used in making yogurt and cheese.
Carried out by yeast and bacteria. Used in brewing beer, making wine, and baking bread.
Also known as the light independent reactions. Takes place in the stroma and includes the Calvin Cycle. This is where carbon dioxide is fixed to form glucose.