Male Reproductive System
Review for Final Exam
Terms in this set (20)
How is temperature of the testes kept constant?
Held outside the body and also function of two muscles- dartos muscle (smooth muscle wrinkles skin to pull testes closer in when cold) and cremaster muscle (skeletal muscle that elevates testes when hot)
Pulls testes close in the cold
Elevates testes when hot
1. Each testis is surrounded by ______
2. Testes are separated into _____ by _____
1. Two tunics- tunica vaginalis and tunica albuginea
2. lobules by septa
Site of Sperm Production
Produce TST and surround tubules
These cells surround the tubule and help move sperm and testicular fluids out of the testes
Three Major Regions of Sperm
1. Head: genetic region (helmet-like acrosome containing enzymes that enable sperm to penetrate egg)
2. Midpiece: metabolic region, mitochondria
3. Tail: locomotor region; flagellum
Sperm are conveyed through:
seminiferous tubules, straight tubule, Rete testis, Efferent ductules, epididymis
The proximal end of the penis, surrounded by ischiocavernosus muscle, anchors penis to pubic arch
Sperm can be stored in the epididymis for _____
Sperm learn how to swim in the _____
-produce viscous alkaline seminal fluid
-makes up 70% of volume of semen
-contents enhance sperm motility
Where does sperm and seminal fluid mix?
Milky fluid released from prostate
Plays a role in the activation of sperm. Enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation.
pea-sized, inferior to prostate. Prior to ejaculation produce thick, clear mucus which lubricates the glans penis and neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra which would otherwise kill the sperm.
-contains nutrients (fructose), protects and activates sperm, and facilitates their movement
-Prostaglandins: decrease viscosity of mucus in cervix and stimulate reverse peristalsis in the uterus
-alkalinity neutralizes acidity in male urethra and female vagina
-only 2-5mL of semen and 20-150 million sperm/ mL
Erection is a ___1___ process. Ejaculation is a __2___ process.
1. parasympathetic 2. sympathetic
-Involves the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and testes (HPG axis)
-Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
-GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
-FSH causes release of androgen-binding protein (ABP) which keeps the concentration of testosterone around spermatogenic cells high
-LH stimulates interstitial cells to release testosterone
-Testosterone is the final trigger for spermatogenesis
Feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus and pituitary results from:
1. Rising levels of testosterone
2. Inhibin (released when sperm count is high)
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