People who regularly sleep less than normal experience a(n) ________ risk of depression and a(n) ________ risk of obesity.
We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are
followed by reinforcement.
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among
behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.
Associations between intelligence and brain size are most notable in specific areas within the
frontal and parietal lobes.
Retention of skills and classically conditioned associations without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.
Treating our mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a ________ approach to therapy.
Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because
any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.
A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the ________ lobes of its cerebral cortex.
Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic differences because
heritable traits can be influenced by social environments.
Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his family's disapproval. Kentaro's behavior exemplifies the importance of
normative social influence.
Some sexually active undergraduate women do not consistently use contraceptives because they see themselves as less vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy than most other undergraduate women. This best illustrates
Our assumptions about the past often influence the manner in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciating the importance of
Hormones, the chemical messengers of the endocrine system, travel through the bloodstream to affect other
The parasympathetic nervous system is to the sympathetic nervous system as ________ is to ________.
contraction of pupils; dilation of pupils
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?
University of Texas students were fitted with belt-worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as
A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +0.60 would indicate that
less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness.
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned information is called
Ten-year-old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Heidi is likely to be
the object of some teasing.
Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least five times greater risk of suicide.
major depressive disorder
Unlike psychodynamic therapists, humanistic therapists tend to focus on the ________ more than the ________.
At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own.
Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive semi-annual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of
Three-year-olds were shown a model of a room with a miniature stuffed dog placed behind a miniature couch. By using the model to locate an actual stuffed dog behind a couch in a real room, the children demonstrated their capacity for
When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they suffered long-term changes in
Our adaptive flexibility in responding to different environments contributes to our fitness, which refers to
our ability to survive and reproduce.
Therapists practice ________ by using positive reinforcers to reward closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior.
Some students study hard beginning with the first couple of weeks of a semester because they subsequently receive very good final course grades. This best illustrates that human behavior is influenced by
Simultaneously analyzing distinct subunits of information received by different areas of the brain is known as
Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if
the difference between the samples is large.
A full week after Usha hears her mother read her a list of 12 different farm animals, Usha is most likely to remember the animals ________ of the list.
at the beginning
When Mr. Adams calculated his students' algebra test scores, he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of these two students?
Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often quiet and reserved at home. He actively participates in many class discussions but frequently seems reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. Sheen's behavior should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of ________ on behavior.
The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that
the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts.
Governor Donovan was greeted by large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies. As a result, he became overconfident about his chances of re-election. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of
Satoshi Kanazawa claims that people's scores on the general intelligence factor are most highly correlated with their ability to solve ________ problems.
Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates
peripheral route persuasion.
Certain stroke victims report seeing nothing when shown a series of sticks, yet they are able to correctly report whether the sticks are vertical or horizontal. This best illustrates
Which of the following brain areas became especially active when a research participant lied about holding a five of clubs?
anterior cingulate cortex
A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.
A sample average can be used to estimate a population average with greater precision if the sample is
Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates
Compared with right-handers, left-handers are
more likely to experience migraine headaches and more likely to suffer from allergies.
A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
bias our perceptions of the labeled person.
In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor and observe its effect on some behavior or mental process?
When Murli told his therapist, "I came to see what you could do for me," the therapist responded, "It sounds like you're feeling you need some help. Am I right?" The therapist's response illustrates the technique of
Chickadees and other birds who store food in hundreds of places cannot remember the food storage locations months later if their ________ has been removed.
Without conscious reflection, people often yawn when they observe others yawning. Researchers are now considering whether this can be attributed to
mirror neuron activity.
After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of
informational social influence.
Production of the human growth hormone necessary for muscle development is most strongly associated with
Research on memory construction indicates that
false memories of imagined events are often recalled as something that really happened.
Alcohol may cause fetal damage by leaving chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off. This best illustrates
an epigenetic effect.
Shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately. This best illustrates
a recency effect.
An ongoing study of 1100 children in 10 American cities has found that those who had spent the most time in day-care facilities had
slightly advanced thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness.
The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of money as ________ is to ________.
primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
After hearing a list of items, peoples' immediate recall of the items is more likely to show a _____ effect than is their later recall of the items.
When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ________ children were much quicker than other children to see anger.
African infants have had a greater chance of survival if they have a living maternal grandmother who is without young children of her own. This fact has been used to support an evolutionary explanation of
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of
an unconditioned stimulus.
Transference refers to a client's
expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships.
Horace, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to
Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of
Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by
the biopsychosocial approach.
Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between
the actual self and the ideal self.
Which of the following research findings would be consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Distinctly different patterns of brain activity are associated with distinctly different emotions.
Dr. Wolski conducts research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolski's research focus is most characteristic of
the biological perspective.