How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

66 terms

Plant Anatomy and Physiology

STUDY
PLAY
Morphology
Study of the physical form and external structure.
Anatomy
Study of the structures.
Angiosperm
Plants that produce flowers/fruits that facilitate reproduction.
Monocot
Seeds with one cotyledon and one initial leaf.
Dicot
Seeds with two cotyledons and two initial leaves.
Shoot System
The above-ground portion of a plant body, consisting of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) flowers.
Root System
All of a plant's roots that anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals (ions), phosphates, nitrates, and water, and also store food.
Dermal Tissue
Outer protective layer that prevents water loss and against damage. Also found within plant protecting the pericycle and vascular bundles (endodermis).
Vascular Tissue
Framework/shape of the leaf
Made up of xylem and phloem
transports water and minerals (xylem) and products of
photosynthesis (phloem)
Hydrates plant
cools plant
Reinforces shape of the plant through turgor pressure
Ground Tissue
Stores stuff, performs metabolic reactions, photosynthesis, structure of plant.
Parenchyma cells (Ground T.)
Perform metabolic reactions
Flexible, single cell wall --> facilitates expansion
Storage of macromolecules (e.g. starch)
Collenchyma (Ground T.)
Supportive cells that has ability to stretch as plant grows.
Sclerenchyma (Ground T.)
Structural cells who are dead at maturity. Secondary cell wall is fortified by lignin (woody tissue).
Xylem (dead vascular tissue)
Transports water and minerals from roots to leaves. Supplies minerals and cools plant.
Made up of tracheids and vessel elements in angiosperms.
Tracheids (in gymnosperms and angiosperms)
Longer, thinner structures for water flow. They have pits in cell wall that improve water flow. Dead at maturity.
Vessel Elements (angiosperms)
Wide diameter with secondary wall supported by lignin. Have a perforated end to improve water flow.
Phloem (living vascular tissue)
Transports macromolecules and products of photosynthesis (ions, G3P, vitamins, proteins, carbs...) from leaves (source) to where it is stored/used (sink). Made up of sieve tubes and companion cells.
Sieve Tubes
Functionally dead, lacking ribosomes, vacuoles, nucleus, cytoplasm. They are the vessels that carry the sap anywhere it is needed in the plant. They have a perforated end (sieve plate) to improve flow.
Companion cells
living parenchyma cells that move items in and out of the sieve tubes and perform metabolic reactions for them. Coupled transport is utilized here to pun macromolecules across their membrane into the tubes, creating a hydrogen gradient in the companion cells and a high osmotic solute concentration within the tubes.
Meristomatic Tissue
Plant stem cells that are involved in growth/repair
Apical Meristomatic Tissue
Located in tips of roots/shoots/axillary buds. Allow plant to grow up and down.
Lateral Meristomatic Tissue
Located along length of roots and stems allowing for growth in diameter in dicots.
Examples: Vascular/Cork Cambium
Protoderm
Meristomatic tissue that produces dermal tissue
Procambium
Meristomatic tissue that produces vascular tissue
Ground Meristem
Meristomatic tissue that creates ground tissue cells
Root Cap
Covering at tip of root that protect the apical meristem as root pushes deeper into soil during primary growth. It also stabilizes the plant, facilitating the absorption of more water and minerals.
Zone of Cell Division (root)
Includes the root apical meristem and its derivates. New root cells are produced here and they are going through the cellular cycle. Allows for increase in plant height/depth.
Zone of Elongation (Root)
Where most growth occurs as root cells elongate. Newly produced cells are in G₁ and they extend cell membrane/wall --> need lost of phospholipids and cellulose from photosynthetic products.
Zone of Maturation (Root)
Where cells complete their differentiation and become distinct cell types.
Terminal Bud (Shoots)
Located at top of plant shoots for upward growth. Composed of apical meristem.
Axillary Bud (Shoots)
Located at sides of Shoot System for outward growth. Made of apical meristem. Branching.
Vascular Cambium
Produces secondary xylem that will take old xylems place in regards to function. Old xylem becomes nonfunctional and sills in.
Cork Cambium (Bark)
Produces a thick, tough, protective covering for plant stems/roots replacing the dermal tissue.
Bark
Outer layer of tree
Wood
Contains tracheids, vessels, and fibers (xylem is lignified).
Heart Wood
Has secondary xylem that is old and nonfunctioning that will eventually fill in as the tree ages.
Sapwood
Functioning secondary xylem
Transpiration
The pull of water and minerals from the roots to the leaves where it will evaporate, creating a water potential gradient and root pressure to bring more water and minerals up.
Root Hairs
increase surface area for water absorption in roots
Aquaporins
Passageways within the membranes that increase the amount of water uptake
Apoplast
Anything outside of cell membrane.
Pathway that most water goes through quickly until it reaches the Caspirian Strip within endodermis (forces water to then take symplast pathway).
Symplast
Anything within the cell membrane including the plasmodesmata. Water will take this pathway into the stele (vascular tissue) of the xylem once it reaches the endodermis.
Properties of Water
Adhesion: Water --> vessel wall
Cohesion: Water molecule --> water molecule
Universal Solvent
Water Potential
Water moves to where the solute concentration in higher (from low to high) --> moves to where it is more negative.
Translocation
Movement of the products of photosynthesis (macromolecules, sucrose/maltose/lactose, ions, vitamins, hormones) form the source (where it is made) to the sink (where it is stored/used).
Source
Where sugar is made:
mesophyll cells of leaf (palisade)
stem (some photosynthesis, storage of polysaccharide)
root
bulb (releases starch in spring)
Sink
Where sugar is stored/used:
roots (growth/storage)
fruit (storage)
buds (growth of new leaves)
stem (growth in height)
Annual
Complete life cycle in one year and dies
Biennial
Plant lives two years and dies
Perennial
Plant lives for many year until destroyed
Stamen
Male
Include:
Anther: pollen receptacle
Filament: structure for anther
Carpel
Female
Include:
Stigma: area for pollen to land
Style: tube/passageway
Ovary
Sporophyte
Diploid (2N)
Mature flowering plant
Gametophyte
Haploid (N) --> one copy
Embryo sac (female) or pollen grain (male)
Male Gametophyte - Pollen Grain
Location: inside sporangium of the anther
Microsporocyte (Male)
Precursor cells that undergo meiosis, forming 4 haploid microspores.
Microspores (Male)
Each will undergo mitosis ONE time, creating pollen grain comprised of 1 generative cell and 1 tube cell per microspore (total of 8 cells now).
Pollen Grain (Male)
Immature gametophyte that becomes mature when generative cell divides into 2 sperm cells (occurs after pollination) via mitosis.
Mature Male Gametophyte
Contains 2 sperma and a tube cell
Female Gametophyte - Embryo Sac
Location: inside sporangium of ovule within ovary
Megasporocyte
Divides by meiosis into 4 cells --> only one will move onto next phase (1 haploid cell)
Megaspore
Divides by mitosis 3 times, creating 8 haploid nuclei. Membranes will then partition this off, creating the embryo sac.
Embryo Sac - Female Gametophyte
1 egg cell (female gametophyte) --> combines with
1st sperm, forming zygote
2 synergids at one end --> lead tube cell into place
for fertilization
3 antipodal cells at opposite end --> no function,
degenerate
2 polar nuclei --> combines with second sperm,
forming endosperm that produces nutrients for
developing embryo
Double Fertilization
1 sperm + 1 egg = zygote
1 sperm + 2 polar nuclei = endosperm
Basal Cells
Forms thread of cells called suspensor that anchors embryo and transports nutrients form parent plant to new plant
Terminal Cell
Gives rise to embryo