77 terms

Breezy Ap gov + politics/ Media-Interest Groups

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Sophomore surge
Term refers to an increase in votes that congressional candidates usually receive after running for their first reelection
1974
All contributions disclosed (FEC); limit hard money $1000; loophole-increased PAC
2002
Raise hard $ 2000; PAC contribution limited to 5000 per election
Today
$2700 hard money contribution per candidate per election
Reapportion seats when?
Every 10 years
Incumbent
-better off w/ lower voter turn out
Balance issue
Issues Both candidates campaign on
Ex) low taxes, growth & prosperity
Position issue
Clear difference between candidates
Ex) abortion
Pocket book vote
People vote in their "pocket book", they have money b/c the economy is good
If presidential campaign came down to part identification what party would win?
Democrat-there is more
Perspective or retrospective behavior?
Retrospective is easier because you look back to see if things got worse or better; perspective is used less b/c more has to be put into it & trust is an issue
Campaign finance attempts by congress to...
Regain trust of people; to limit the effects of money in politics- haven't been very successful therefore the suggest it's almost impossible b/c of loopholes
Hispanic voters
Most are not registered to vote; votes are not homogenous
Visuals v. Commercials spots
Visuals- seeing you directly on tv(news)-gives less info but is more powerful b/c it isn't scripted
Commercial-campaign ad & it gives more info about you-not as effective b/c it's all choreographed
Private interests groups v. Public interests groups
Private are more funded- more private groups than public
Why do factions(special interest groups) exist according to James Madison?
Believed the causes are faction are rooted in the nature of man
Emergence of large mass membership unions-what helped form them?
broad economic developments
Americans are more likely to join what than citizens of other countries?
Religious and political associations
Mass member interest group
Ex) AARP
-people don't join them
Solitary incentives
...
Public purpose incentive-Interests groups that rely on motive
Mothers against drunk driving
Peak of union movement
...
Americans who are most likely to join interest groups
People with a better than average income
What is the primary purpose of the legislative rating?
Main purpose is to influence the behavior of legislators.
Nixon
First president to publicly attack the media
Adversarial- why do media and politicians have an adversarial relationship?
Competition-
The need each other but they don't trust each other
Horse race journalism
When media focuses score(whose winning the race) than reporting on issues to educate people
Gatekeeper
Influences what subjects become national political issues and for how long
Watchdog
Investigates personalities and exposes scandals
Scorekeeper
Tracks political reputations and candidates
14th amendment
Address citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, response to civil war
Newspapers-can both be lib and cons
The number of newspapers has declined significantly
Wire services- Associates Press(AP) united press international (UPI)- non partisan writers
Write stories of what's going on in the world and post in newspapers, the stories they were used were all true
Non partisan
Does not support a specific group
Partisan identification means to identify with?
To identify with a certain group and being biased towards another certain political party/group
Government and media- have a love- hate relationship/ explain
Because the media can tend to spill important information or use false inaccurate information
Lobbyist
Someone who attempts to influence the actions, policies or decisions of officials in a government, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies
Whom do lobbyist attempt to influence?
Legislators, constituents or organized groups
Radio and tv regulated by?
FCC
Do reporters have to divulge info?
If the info is important when dealing w/ a criminal investigation
1972-only ...% of American cities had competing newspapers
4
Political efficacy
Citizens faith and trust in government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs
Examples of local newspapers that have national readership..
NY times & Washington Post
1st amendment
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise of religion or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press
Limitations on speech and Press
Censorship of certain words - can't say these words on the media

freedom of speech gives you the opportunity to say as much as you want
Social movement/examples of
Civil rights, feminist, environmental
The less extreme the movement, the larger the movement maybe. The more extreme the movement, the smaller of movement may be.
...
People get involved in interest groups, also called civic groups. Why
Because they have faith and trust in the government
Ralph Nader
Famous for automobile safety
Purpose of membership in an interest group
They have incentives that relate to the goals of the organization
Labor unions
Formed primarily for economic interest, demanded better wages
Labor unions formed interest groups, name examples
United auto workers, teachers union
High point of union movement was in 1945
...
50% of interest groups are what?
Corporations
Which amendment was used to justify the civil rights act of 1964?
14th amendment
Percent of non farm union membership today
11%
Straight ticket voting
The practice of voting for every candidate that a political party has on a general election ballot
Split ticket voting
Refers to when a voter in an election votes for candidates from different political parties
To win by plurality means?
Any election involving two more candidates where the person with the most votes wins
PAC - primary function of a PAC
Purpose is to raise and spend money to elect in defeat candidates
Gubernatorial=governor
...
The only election in the US that can be financed by the federal government?
Presidential
Most Americans identify themselves with democratic or republican or moderates?
Democratic
Midterm elections - presidential elections - which has a higher voter turn out?
Presidential elections because people and more invested
Incumbent
Candidate currently holding office that plans to run in a future election
Which age group votes at a higher rate in most elections?
55 years or older
Why does the government have a census every 10 years? What happens to congregational districts after each census
It determines the number of seats each state has in the US House of Representatives and also used to disturb you billions and federal funds to local communities
Presidential elections maybe funded by the federal government
True
What advantages do incumbents have over challengers?
Recognition and influence
True/false lobbyist can influence federal judges
True
True/False The federal government may sensor the price when it comes to military
True
An interest group is any organization that seeks to influence... Policy
Public
What do we call the preliminary elections that determine the top Republican and Democratic candidates are?
Caucus, primaries
Modern campaigns utilized to sources for exposure name both
TV and direct mail
Gerrymandering
When district boundaries are drawn to favor one party over another
The first presidential primary is in which state?
New Hampshire
Interest group activities, a form of political speech, are protected by which amendment?
1st
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