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American Studies 1 Honors Final
Terms in this set (98)
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Dred Scott Decision
Landmark court decision that ruled that slaves were property and antislavery laws were unconstitutional
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
1857, supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Assault in the Senate
Brooks beat Charles Sumner with a cane; showed that compromise wasn't possible and no one could come to an agreement
U.S. citizens who opposed immigration because they were suspicious of immigrants and feared losing jobs to them
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
The withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War, South Carolina was first state to secede.
Election of 1860
Republican - Abraham Lincoln anti-slavery expansion. Democrat - Stephan A. Douglas pro-pop sov, John C. Breckenridge-pro-slavery expansion. Constitutional Union - John Bell-pro whatever it took to avoid war. Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states).
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
knowledge of land, fighting to protect lifestyle, better trained soldiers,strong military leaders
few factories, few railroads, telegraphs, and troops, smaller population, no navy, little money, supplies, and food
more people to grow food, telegraphs, railroads, and money, a lot more people, (larger source of volunteers) many people to work in the factories making supplies, strong navy, large fleet of trading ships, strong economy
The common people of Britain supported the North, hoping to extinguish slavery. Britain restrained its own and French ironclads from breaking the Union blockade. The British manufacturers depended upon cotton from the South, but before the war from 1857 to 1860, a surplus of cotton had developed in Britain, allowing it to function without purchasing cotton from the South. In 1861, the cotton supply ran out and many British factory workers were laid off. As Union armies penetrated the South, they sent cotton to Britain. King Wheat and King Corn, which were produced great quantities in the North, proved to be more powerful than King Cotton. Therefore, Britain wasn't able to break the blockade to gain cotton, because if it had, it would have lost the granary from the North.
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Battle of Gettysburg
Union Civil War victory that turned the tide against the Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennslyvania, resulted in the loss of 50,000 soldiers
a general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
Union War Strategy
Anaconda Plan-he Anaconda Plan is the name widely applied to an outline strategy for subduing the seceding states in the American Civil War. Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the plan emphasized the blockade of the Southern ports, and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two. Because the blockade would be rather passive, it was widely derided by the vociferous faction who wanted a more vigorous prosecution of the war, and who likened it to the coils of a snake suffocating its victim. The image caught on, giving the proposal its popular name.
Robert E. Lee
American soldier, he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union Army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
Lee's Surrender at Appomattox
On April 9, 1865, Lee was forced to surrender the Army of Northern Virginia (a significant portion of the Confederate army) at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, effectively ending the Civil War.
Was in ruins, in 1880 started to rebuild and using cotton again, 1890 equals factories, 1990 = steady economy
oppressive laws designed to regulate affairs of emancipated Blacks, ensuring a stable and subservient labor force
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
This was Lincoln's reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation, and then formally erect their state governments. This plan was very lenient to the South, would have meant an easy reconstruction.
In December 1865, Southern states represented themselves in Congress with former Confederate generals and colonels. This infuriated the Republicans who were apprehensive about embracing their Confederate enemies in Congress. The Republicans had enjoyed their supreme rule in Congress during the time of the Civil War, but now there would be an opposing party. This time, the South would have much more control in Congress due to the fact that slaves were now counted as a whole person, not just 3/5; giving the South a larger population. Republicans feared that the South would take control of Congress.
the constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
Provided for dividing states into military districts with military commanders to oversee voter registration that included adult African-American males for state conventions; state conventions to draft constitutions that provided for suffrage for black men; state legislatures to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
When the land which became this STATE was acquired in 1867, many Americans thought it quite foolish. In fact, the agreement by which it was purchased was known as "Seward's Folly" for the Secretary of State who made the agreement with Russia. Name this, the 49th State.
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.", Johnson impeached for violating Tenure in Office Act
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
(USG) , 1872, This was a fraudulent construction company created to take the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. Using govn't funds for the railroad, the Union Pacific directors gave padded construction contracts to Congress members
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
Election of 1868
The Republicans nominated General Grant for the presidency in 1868. The Republican Party supported the continuation of the Reconstruction of the South, while Grant stood on the platform of "just having peace."The Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour. Grant won the election of 1868.
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river, harmed African Americans
Restrictions for African Americans
Jim Crow Laws, Black Codes, law by custom, curfews, no economic freedoms, no voting unless paid a poll tax or pass a literacy test, Grandfather Clause
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
The Pendleton Act
The Pendleton Act of 1883 made campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examination. It was basically made to stop political corruption. The civil-service reform forced politicians to gain support and funds from big-business leaders.
Cleveland's Hands off approach
advocated a "hands off" approach to government, led him to veto more legislation than any preceding president.
Republican congress of 1890. passed record # of significant laws that helped shape later policies and asserted authority of federal govt., gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
Cleveland turned to J.P. Morgan to lend $65 million in gold in order to increase the Treasury's reserve, very unpopular and controversial
Sherman Silver Purchase Act/ William Jennings Bryan
In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would buy 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878/United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution to lower prices and eliminate competition, Carnegie Steel
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level, absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level, A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies, purely social
Interstate Commerce Act
prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
land subsidies granted to railroad companies to encourage construction of rail lines to the West
the railroad network
The Union Pacific Railroad was commissioned by Congress in 1862 to build a transcontinental railroad starting in Omaha, Nebraska.Many railroad workers, including Irish "Paddies", were forced to pick up their rifles and fight when Indians attempted to defend their lands.
Standard Time Zones
At this time, every town in the United States had its own local time. In order to keep schedules and avoid wrecks, the major rail lines stated, on November 18, 1883, that the continent would be divided into 4 times zones - most towns accepted the new time method.
The leaders of the billion dollar business firms of the late 1800's were rich. They had a large control of the people and of the government, captains of industry/robber barons
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
J. P. Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
Owner of an American Tobacco Company, which established a virtual monopoly over the processing of raw tobacco into marketable materials, revolutionized tobacco industry
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Age of Industrialization
people moved to the cities, the unhealthy working conditions, child labor, and overcrowded working conditions. patients died in the hospitals 100% mortality rates. 1847 Antiseptic methods were first developed and used. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis, a hungarian obstetrician began to study what was called childbed fever., ruled by the clock
women in late 1800's
-wives had to give their property and wages to their husbands -a man was allowed to hit his wife as long as it didnt result in serious injury -women could not vote or hold office, began to work in factories to support families, Gibson Girl
Captains of Industry
Name given to industrialists, such as John D Rockefeller by observers who supported social darwinism.
During the decades after the Civil War, economic miracles increased the standard of living in the United States. The industry of agriculture declined to manufacturing. 50-50 manufacturing agriculture split
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization, poor people are poor because of their own fault
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers, sensationalism
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Immigrants who came to the United States during and after the 1880s; most were from southern and eastern Europe., Albania, Slovakia, etc.
Free Public Education
During this time period, public education and the idea of tax-supported elementary schools and high schools were gathering strength.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
School Attendance Laws
children were forced to go to school, helped keep child labor in check, showed importance of teaching kids
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.
W.E.B. Du Bois
demanded complete equality for Blacks and helped found the NAACP, believed that blacks didn't have to prove themselves and should be automatically given equality
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years and make it profitable. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Dawes Severalty Act
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
Battle of Wounded Knee
The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Great Plains problems
In the West, white soldiers spread cholera, typhoid, and smallpox to the Indians. The whites also put pressure on the shrinking bison population by hunting and grazing their own livestock on the prairie grasses.
Patrons of Husbandry
a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically., 1850-1914
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
The Foreign Policy at the time was that the US was the best country in the world and that we should expand our borders to prove so., Isolationism
America attained Hawaii by forcing the Hawaiian King to sign a constitution and reduced his power. The Queen Liliuokalani gave up her country because she didn't want to go to war with America. Hawaii became the 50th State, territory in 1893, annexed in 1898
"start" of the Span-Amer war; exploded off the coast of cuba and it was blamed on spanish torpedoes; heightened by yellow journalists, actually gas leak
Declaration of War
Although President McKinley did not want a war with Spain, the American people did. He felt that the people should rule so he sent his war message to Congress on April 11, 1898. Congress declared war and adopted the Teller Amendment. It proclaimed to the world that when the United States had overthrown the Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom.
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines., 1898, Cuba resented Spain's control, which led to rebellion. Spain responded with the dispatch of General Valeriano Weyler, who confined civilians to brutal camps. The US "yellow press" labeled him "Butcher Weyler," increasing American support against Spain. US sent the battleship Maine to Havana to protect American interests; it was blown up. US fought Spain in the Philippines and in Cuba. Treaty of Paris allowed for Cuban independence; US gained Pureto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines while Spain received $20 million form the US for the Philippines.
The US received Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, and the Philippines. The U.S. also annexed Hawaii during this time.
Allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
Open Door Policy
a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal, originally going to be in Nicaragua
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
reform effort, generally centered in urban areas and begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting injustices in American life., end of laissez faire
prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages, 1919
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries
Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them
1913 constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect US senators
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
Rule of Reason
under the Sherman Act, contracts or conspiracies are illegal only if they constitute an unreasonable restraint of trade or attempt to monopolize. If an agreement promotes competition, it may be legal. If it suppresses or destroys competition, it is unreasonable and illegal.
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