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ART APPRECIATION FINAL REVIEW
Terms in this set (85)
Art governed by rules, especially works sanctioned by an official institution, academy, or school. Originally applied to art that conformed to standards established by the French Academy regarding composition, drawing, and color usage. The term has come to mean conservative and traditional art.
When artists ignore the real colors of objects and instead make color choices that support personal preference and express meaning
Arts & Crafts movement
An international design movement that originated in Britain and flourished between 1880 and 1910. It was instigated by the artist and writer William Morris (1834-1896) in the 1860s and was inspired by the writings of John Ruskin (1819-1900). It influenced architecture, domestic design and the decorative arts, using simple forms and a medieval style of decoration. It advocated truth to materials, traditional craftsmanship and economic reform.
The painting of scenes from the past.
Paintings based on mythological or biblical narratives. Once considered the noblest form of art. They generally convey a high moral or intellectual idea and are often painted in a grand pictorial style.
A style of painting that originated in France about 1870. (The first Impressionist exhibit was held in 1874.) Paintings of casual subjects were executed outdoors using divided brush strokes to capture the light and mood of a particular moment and the transitory effects of natural light and color.
The emulation of classical Greek and Roman art; much of the subject matter was Roman because it expressed a republican, or nonmonarchical, governement.
A general term applied to various personal styles of painting by French artists (or artists living in France) that developed from about 1885 to 1900 in reaction to what these artists saw as the somewhat formless and aloof quality of Impressionist painting. Post-Impressionist painters were concerned with the significance of form, symbols, expressiveness, and psychological intensity. They can be broadly separated into two groups-expressionists, such as Gauguin and van Gogh, and formalists, such as Cezanne and Seurat.
A system of painting using ./ tiny dots or "points" of color, developed by French artist Georges Seurat in the 1880s. Seurat systematized the divided brushwork and optical color mixture of the Impressionists and called his technique Divisionism.
1. A type of representational art in which the artist depicts as closely as possible what the eye sees. 2. Realism. The mid-nineteenth-century style of Courbet and others, based on the idea that ordinary people and everyday activities are worthy subjects for art.
1. A literary and artistic movement of Jate eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, aimed at asserting the validity of subjective experience as a countermovement to the often cold formulas of Neoclassicism; characterized by intense emotional excitement, and depictions of powerful forces in nature, exotic lifestyles, danger, suffering, and nostalgia. 2. Art of any period based on spontaneity, intuition, and emotion rather than carefully organized rational approaches to form.
An official art exhibition in France, juried by members of the official French Academy.
A concept, thing or state of exceptional and awe-inspiring beauty and moral or intellectual expression — a goal to which many nineteenth-century artists aspired in their artworks. Noble, majestic.
An art movement which rejected the purely visual realism of the Impressionists, and the rationality of the Industrial Age, in order to depict the symbols of ideas. Influenced by Romanticism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, it thrived in France in the late nineteenth century, its influence spreading throughout much of Europe. Rather than the precise equivalents of ideas or emotions, its symbols were meant to be more mysterious, ambiguous suggestions of meanings.
The first phase of Cubism, from about 1907 to 1912. Analytic cubists reduced natural forms to their basic geometric parts and then tried to reconcile these essentially three-dimensional parts with the two-dimensional picture plane. Color was greatly subdued, and paintings were nearly monochromatic.
From the French coller, to glue. A work made by gluing various materials, such as paper scraps, photographs, and cloth, on a flat surface.
A movement in art and literature, founded in Switzerland in the early twentieth century, which ridiculed contemporary culture and conventional art. The Dadaists shared an anti militaristic and anti-aesthetic attitude, generated in part by the horrors of World War, and in part by a rejection of accepted canons of morality and taste. The anarchic spirit of Dada can be seen in the works of Duchamp, Man Ray, Hoch, Miro, and Picasso. Many Dadaists later explored Surrealism.
De Stijl (The Style)
A Dutch purist art movement begun during World War I by Mondrian and others. It involved painters, sculptors, designers, and architects whose works and ideas were expressed in De Stijl magazine. De Stijl, Dutch for "the style," was aimed at creating a universal language of form that would be independent of individual emotion. Visual form was pared down to primary colors plus black and white, and rectangular shapes. The movement was influential primarily in architecture.
die blaue Reiter (the Blue Rider)
One main groups of German Expressionism led by Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, who lived in Munich between 1908 and 1914 and who shared his German associates a concern for developing an art that would turn people away from false values, toward spiritual rejuvenation.
die BrÃ¼cke (the Bridge)
Another main group of German Expressionism led by Ernst Lugwig Kirchner, architecture student turned painter, and founder of the Bridge. It included several of his fellow architectual students, Emil Nolde, and others. They appealed to artists to revolt against academic painting and established a new, vigorous aesthetic that would form a bridge between the Germanic past and modern experience. They first exhibited as a group in 1905, the year of the first Fauve exhibition.
A style of painting introduced in Paris in the early twentieth century, characterized by areas of bright, contrasting color and simplified shapes. The name les fauves is French for "the wild beasts."
A group movement that originated in Italy in 1909. One of several movements to grow our of Cubism. Futurists added implied motion to the shifting planes and multiple observation points of the Cubists; they celebrated natural as well as mechanical motion and speed. Their glorification of danger, war, and the machine age was in keeping with the martial spirit developing in Italy at the time.
German artists who desired to express attitudes and emotions that were so pronounced and sustained. It developed the imagery characterized by vivid, often angular simplifications of their subjects, dramatic color contrasts, with bold, at times crude finish. These techniques added emotional intensity to their works. This expression was built on the achievements of Gauguin, van Gogh, and Munch. It addressed human conditions like: natural life, sorrow, passion, spirituality, and mysticism. PAGE 384
Majorly influenced by philosopher Alain Locke's book THE NEW NEGRO. It included poets, musicians, novelists, and visual artists. The Renaissance included Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, Zora Neale Hurston, etc. Visual arts was an intregral part of the movement illustrating books, designed interior spaces, and photographed the teeming life around them.
408 & 409
A type of collage in which paper shapes are combined into one work of art. French, literally "stuck paper."
A montage of photographs.
montage - A single pictorial composition made by juxtaposing or overlapping many pictures or designs. The art or process of making such a composition. Also, a rapid succession of different images or shots in a movie.
Also known as American scene painting, a style of art that was popular in the United States during the 1930s. The artists who worked in this style wanted to paint the American scene — away from the New York area — in a clear, simple way that could be understood and enjoyed by everyone.
A type of realism which is more overtly political in content, critical of society, marked by its realistic depiction of social problems. Paintings by Jean François Millet (French, 1814-75), a painter associated with the Barbizon school, such as The Gleaners (1857, Louvre), is considered an early example of social realism. The greatest impact of this art movement was felt in the first half of the twentieth century, however. Mexican muralists Diego Rivera (1886-1957), José Clemente Orozco (1883-1949), and David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974) strongly influenced many North American social realist and New Deal artists. Some of these northern artists emerged from the Ashcan school, while others, like Ben Shahn (American, 1898-1969), evolved separately. Be careful not to confuse social realism with socialist realism.
A variation of abstract art, originating in Russia in the early 20th century, characterized by the use of geometric shapes as the basic elements of the composition.
A type of art formulated by Kazimir Malevich to convey his belief that the supreme reality in the world is pure feeling, which attaches to no object and thus calls for new, nonobjective forms in artshapes not related to objects in the visible world.
The most influential style of the twentieth century, developed in Paris by Picasso and Braque, beginning in 1907. The early mature phase of the style, called analytical Cubism, lasted from 1909 through 191l. Cubism is based on the simultaneous presentation of multiple views, disintegration, and geometric reconstruction of subjects in flattened, ambiguous pictorial space; figure and ground merge into one interwoven surface of shifting planes. Color is limited to neutrals. By 1912, the more decorative phase called synthetic or collage Cubism began to appear; it was characterized by fewer, more solid forms, conceptual rather than observed subject matter, and richer color and texture.
(Works Progress Administration) set up during the Depression in the 1930's. It set up art centers in one hundred cities. Jacob Lawrence was a product of one of these centers in Harlem where he met leaders of the Renaissance. PAGE 419
An art movement, primarily in painting, that originated in the United States in the 1940s and remained Strong through the J 950s. Artists working in many different styles emphasized spontaneous personal expression in large paintings that are abstract or nonrepresentational. One type of Abstract Expressionism is called
action painting. See also Expressionism.
A style of nonrepresentational painting that relies on the physical movement of the artist by using such gestural techniques as vigorous brushwork, dripping, and pouring. Dynamism is often created through the interlaced directions of the paint's impact. A subcategory of Abstract Expressionism.
A movement that grew out of Abstract Expressionism, in which large stained or painted areas or "fields" of color evoke aesthetic and emotional responses.
An art form in which the originating idea and the process by which it is presented take precedence over a tangible product. Conceptual works are sometimes produced in visible form, but they often exist only as descriptions of mental concepts or ideas. This trend developed in the late 1960s, partially as a way to avoid the commercialization of art.
Sculptural forms made from earth, rocks, or sometimes plants, often on a vast scale and in remote locations. Some are deliberately impermanent.
An event conceived by artists and performed by artists and others, usually unrehearsed and without a specific script or stage.
A term first used in the 1950s to distinguish styles of paintings in which shapes are precisely defined by sharp edges, in contrast to the usually blurred or soft edges in Abstract Expressionist paintings.
Term applied to an arrangement of institutionally illicit marks in which there has been an attempt to establish some sort of coherent composition: such marks are made by an individual or individuals (not generally professional artists) upon a wall or other surface that is usually visually accessible to the public. The term "graffiti" derives from the Greek graphein ("to write"). Graffiti (s. graffito), meaning a drawing or scribbling on a flat surface, originally referred to those marks found on ancient Roman architecture.
A type of art medium in which the artist arranges objects or artworks 'in a room, thinking of the entire space as the medium to be manipulated. Also called environments.
Issue oriented art
Art where artists withiin the past 20 years have sought to link their art to current social questions. They believe they can limit their art to aesthetic matters, then their work will be only a distraction from pressing problems. They recognize that what we see influences how we think, and they don't to mis the opportunity to influence both.
A nonrepresentational style of sculpture and painting, usually severely restricted in the use of visual elements and often consisting of simple geometric shapes or masses. The style came to prominence in the late 1960s.
, An art movement that emerged in the 1970s and that reflects the artists' interest in the expressive capability of art, seen earlier in German Expressionism and Abstract Expressionism. Susan Rothenberg was one of the first.
Works of Johns and Rauschenberg which provided a bridge between Abstract Expressionism and later Pop Art. It broke out in Europe in 1958.
A large wall painting, often executed in fresco.
Murals are a form of art that often expresses contemporary issues that tell a story about the present and the past.
A twentieth century art movement and style in which artists sought to create an impression of movement on the picture surface by means of optical illusion. It is derived from, and is also known as Optical Art and Perceptual Abstraction. In the 1960s art world, some critics faulted Op Art's persistent involvement with optical illusion at a time when "the flatness of the picture plane" was the mantra on either side of the Color Field - Minimalist aisle. Clement Greenberg saw flatness as painting's essence. Donald Judd saw it as an escape route into three dimensions.
Dramatic presentation by visual artists (as distinguished from theater artists such as actors and dancers) in front of an audience, usually apart from a formal theatrical setting.
Realist paintings and sculptures involving thorough reproduction of detail. In painting the results were nearly photographic — in fact made from photographs (although painters had been working from photographs since the early days of photography).
Strong in Europe from the late 1960s into the 1970s, where his type of illusionism is known principally as superrealism.
Among the most highly regarded American photorealist painters are Richard Estes (1932-), Chuck Close (1940-), Audrey Flack (1931-), Charles Bell (1935-1995), and Ralph Goings (1928-).
A style of painting and sculpture that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s, in Britain and the United States; based on the visual cliches, subject matter, and impersonal style of popular mass-media imagery.
An attitude or trend of the 1970s, J 980s, and 1990s. In architecture,
the movement away from or beyond what had become boring adaptations of the International Style, in favor of an imaginative, eclectic approach. In the other visual arts, Post-Modern is characterized by influence from all periods and styles, including modernism, and a willingness ro combine elements of all styles and periods. Although modernism makes distinctions between high art and popular taste, Post-Modernism makes no such value judgments.
Works that are inseparavle from the sites for which they were designed. the artist's sensitivity to the location determines the composition, scale, medium, and even the content of each piece
(Hyperrealism) is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully-fledged school of art and can be considered as an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting photorealistic paintings or sculptures. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has recently developed since the early 2000s.
One of the most influential art movements. Beginning in Paris, it spread to many parts of the world. Makes possible many ambiguities between presence and absence, representation and abstraction, figure and ground. It suggests meanings that are relative and contingent. It suggest constant change and evolution.
Land art refering to a movement of artists with wide ranging goals, but all created in nature, employing such materials as stones, dirt, and leaves.
American art movement of the 1960s using the land itself as medium; monuments of great scale and simplicity of form; permanent or impermanent; especially Michael Heizer (Double Negative) and Robert Smithson (Spiral Jetty)
Group of German artists who believed optimistically that new technology and art could rebuild their damaged society? Created streamlined office buildings and design functional furniture, utensils, books, interiors, clothing, and decorative objects.
Reflect the concepts of both De Stijl and Constructivism.
Post-Impressionist style artist
Main interest landscaping
MOUNT SAINTE-VICTORE, 1902-1904, OIL ON CANVAS
GARDANNE, 1885-1886, OIL ON CANVAS
Swedish American sculptor of the 60's, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects: "Falling Shoestring Potatoes", giant plastic sculpture of pillow-soft telephones
Oldenburg produced 3-D imagery ranging from light switches, food displays, and furniture sets
American sculptor of the postwar period. Took the formal ideas of Cubism and gave them an American vigor. His assembled metal sculpture balanced formal qualities with the elemental energy of Abstract Expressionist painting.
Abstract Expressionist sculptor. Using large metal geometric forms he burnished the surface to create texture. His work was meant for the outdoors.
CUBI XVII, 1963, POLISHED STAINLESS STEEL
Spanish, Romantic painter and printmaker
Experienced some of the worst aspects of the Napoleonic era of the French Revolution
THE THIRD OF MAY, 1808, 1814, OOC
Frank Lloyd Wright
Most influencial twentieth century American architect, born in Wisconsin, radical innovator, responsible for the Guggenheim Museum, and Imperial Hotel in Tokyo
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
FALLINGWATER (EDGAR KAUFMANN RESIDENCE), 1937, PHOTO OF HIS ARCHIECT
ROBIE HOUSE, 1909, CHICAGO, IL
Twentieth century French painter and sculptor who, with Pablo Picasso, developed Cubism, and Analytical and Synthetic Cubism.
THE PORTUGUESE, 1911, OOC
HOUSE AT L'ESTAQUE, 1908,OOC
French painter who developed pointilism during the post impressionist period (divisionism) (1859-1891)
His art influenced twentieth century expressionist styles
Influenced formalist styles
Work based on observations of nature
A SUNDAY ON LA GRANDE JATTE, 1884-1886, OOC
Iowa's most famous American artist. 3 of the 5 final ideas for the State quarter came from his paintings. Those paintings were "American Gothic" "Young Corn" and "Arbor Day"
One of the most famous portrayals of America's rural life of the mid-west, and during the Great Depression
AMERICAN GOTHIC, 1930, OIL ON BEAVERBOARD, LOLLL
French painter most famous member of realist school. Painted only things that he saw. Phrase "Realism" was coined in reaction to one of his paintings. All of his works represented everyday life.
THE STONE BREAKERS, 1849, OOC
French painter and sculptor, (1869-1954), of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He is known for his brilliant colors and bolt brush strokes and had a major influence on modern art.
An extreme Fauves Abstract Expressionist, leader of "the beasts," focused on arrangement of color, line and form
LA DERSSERTE, 1897, OOC
HARMONY IN RED (THE RED ROOM), 1908-1909, OOC
JOY OF LIFE, 1905-1906, OOC
French painter who used a Impressionism called
"Super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting.
IMPRESSION: SUNRISE, 1872, OOC
ON THE BANK OF THE SENE, BENNECOURT, 1868, OOC
Leading innovator of Abstract Expressionism, studied in the 1930's. He dripped, poured, and flung his paint.
He began "action painting" by painting on huge canvases spread out on the floor?
AUTHUM RHYTHM (NUMBER 30), 1950, OOC
Jacques Louis David
Led the way to revolutions in both art and politics. He believed that arts should serve as a political purpose in a time of social and governmental reform, he rejected what he saw as the frivolous immorality associated with the arisocratic Rococo style. Used a style called NEOCLASSICISM.
OATH OF THE HORATII, 1784, OOC
Produced simple works of art based on common graphic forms such as targets, maps, flags, and numbers. He was interested in the difference between emblems that carry meaning and art. In his art, common signs play a dual role: they have the power of Abstract Expressionist forms in their size, bold design, and painterly surface qualities yet they represent familiar objects bringing back art to everyday life.
TARGET WITH FOUR FACES, 1955, ASSEMBLAGE
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Founder of THE BRIDGE. He developed a style that incorporated Cubism, African sculpture, and German Gothic art. German expressionist painter (1880-1938), Flat color, diaganol lines, acidic colors, isolationist, heavy black shapes. painted the street
STREET BERLIN, 1913, OOC
Creates works of clay that look like real leather (3-D objects)
Ms. Levine's Funk phase included sculptures of shoes and sneakers oozing bright glaze. When a friend brought her his beat-up work shoes, she began to see old leather objects as metaphors for the passage of time and the scars of life. She developed a meticulous trompe l'oeil style, capturing in fired clay and glaze the forms, surfaces and creases of much-used luggage, gloves, hand-bags, a golf bag, a knapsack and even leather jackets hanging from coat hooks.
Belgium Surrealist who used an illogical form of realism, similar to Dalf's in surface appearance but quite different content. Her paintings engaged the viewer in mind teasing mystery and playful humor.
PORTRAIT, 1935, OOC
A Dutch-born twentieth-century artist known for his geometric paintings characterized by perpendicular lines and planes of pure primary colors. Influenced by cubism, he created a style called "neoplasticism," which he used in works such as Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue and Broadway Boogie Woogie.
TABLEAU 2 WITH YELLOW, BLACK, BLUE, RED, AND GRAY, 1922, OOC
Twentieth century artist, French post-impressionist painter who worked in the South Pacific (1848-1903)
Pioneered expressionist techniques. Saw form and design of a painting as important in themselves. Became famous for his paintings of the South Pacific.
Many of his most famous pieces are of life on the islands of Tahiti and Marquesas
PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST WITH THE IDOL, 1893, OOC
VISION AFTER THE SERMON, 1888, OOC
FATATA TE MITI, 1892, OOC
French impressionist painter; nude female paintings
THE LUNCHEON OF THE BOATING PARTY, 1881, OOC
Prominent American pop artist. His work was heavily influenced by both popular advertising and the comic book style. He himself described pop art as, "not 'American' painting but actually industrial painting".
DROWNING GIRL, 1963, OIL ON SYTHETIC PLOYMER PAINT ON CANVAS
Spanish Surrealist who made art out of his nightmares
Painted Inventions of the monsters & The Persistence of Memory - surrealism (meant to represent the world of subconscious and dreams) both have Freudian references to repressed terror, violence, apathy, and sexuality
THE PERSISTENCE OF MEMORY, 1931, OOC
Vincent van Gogh
Twentieth-century Dutch post impressionist painter noted for his use of color (1853-1890)
Introduced lighter and brighter paintings
Self taught, but attended an art academy in Anthwerp, Belgium. There he met French Impressionist, and Post Impressionist painters.
SELF PORTRAIT OF THE GRAY HAT, 1887, OOC
JAPONAISERIE FLOWERING PLUM TREE, 1887, OOC
THE SOWER, 1888, OOC
THE STARRY NIGHT, 1889, OOC
Artist who used an abstract style of painting. Lived in Munich between 1908 and 1914, who shared with his German associates a concern for developing an art that would turn people away from false values, but toward spiritual rejuvenation. He believed that a painting should be an 'exact replica' of some inner emotion
BLUE MOUNTAIN, 1908-09, OOC
COMPOSITION, 1911, OOC
Sculpture using preexisting, sometimes "found" objects that may or may not contribute their original identities to the totalk content of the work.
A collection of artifacts of one or several classes of materials (stone tools, ceramics, bones) that comes from a defined context, such as a site, feature, or stratum.
French for vanguard. Artists and their work which stand in the forefront of a movement or of new ideas, often in opposition to established ideas and traditions; art that's ahead of its time, innovative, experimental, heterodox. The modern era has invariably had a flourishing avant-garde, but many have said it is no longer possible in a postmodern era. The bourgeoisie, once alienated by the avant-garde, rarely question any longer the presentation of any avant-garde's productions by their public institutions.
A group active in the invention and application of new techniques in a given field, especially in the arts., group of artists whose work is based on the newest ideas and methods; CF. vanguard
An event conceived by artists and performed by artists and others, usually unrehearsed and without a specific script or stage
The painting of scenes from the past.
Paintings based on mythological or biblical narratives. Once considered the noblest form of art. They generally convey a high moral or intellectual idea and are often painted in a grand pictorial style.
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