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Western Civ Midterm IDs
Terms in this set (89)
aka New Stone Age. There was the Agricultural revolution, which totally changes human life. There are now permanent settlements, trade, specialization (people have specified jobs), domestication of animals, storage of food for the winter, writing to keep records, use of metals instead of stones. Also there was more distinction of gender roles because the outside role was seen as more important because they had control of food.
Code of Hammurabi
Oldest written law code that was chiseled into stone and clay tablets that tried to bring justice. It was based on retaliation and severe penalties. The rules were on Agriculture, trade and family. It was created in Ancient Babylon
This writing is one of the earliest types of writing found. This was used by highly educated scribes. They were wedge shaped codified writing typically used in clay tablets.
"The Gift of the Nile"
the Nile river's annual flooding caused smooth fertile soil (silt!) which created a surplus of food. It was also used for transportation, and Egypt was safe from invasion because ships wen't big enough to transport an army
This group of people's spoken language became the mother tongue for most languages. This because they migrated all over Europe, Mediterranean and Asia. They traveled and migrated alot.
Led by Moses, was when the Hebrews left slavery in Egypt for the promised land of Canaan. It is the central theme of the torah
King Nebuchandnezzar captured Jerusalem and kicks the Jews out. The temple is destroyed and kicked the Jews out. many Jews migrate to other places. This allows for Jews to spread to places other than their heartland. This ended when Cyrus the Great allowed the Jews to return.
Sailors and traders that were known from spreading their alphabet. They traveled all around the Med Sea and set up colonies. They were the first sailors in the Med to sail beyond the Straight of Gibraltar and into the Atlantic Ocean. Their city, Carthage, is famous
He restored the Babylon empire. He was a wealthy and powerful Babylon king that was not nice to the Jews. He made Babylon beautiful with a giant tower, huge walls, and the famous Hanging Gardens
Cyrus the Great
Founder of the Persain empire and was a great military conqueror. But was he was remembered by was for his kindnesses, tolerance and intelligence. For example, instead of destroying temples, he would knell down and pray to their gods. He cared for his people, and when he conquered, he made roads, dug canals, and made traveling easier
created Zoroastrianism in Persian empire, which is one of the oldest monotheisms in the world. It still had a dualistic nature with a god of light and of darkness, and the armies in the soul battle, and there would be an army that would win on the day a person died. This religion had a Last Judgement
A Greek city state. This includes the city and surrounding area, and was pretty small with usually less than 1000 people. Each one had an Acropolis (highest point of the city with all the important stuff) and an Agora (at the bottom of the hill where there were all the places for the people.). Citizens were usually free adult men. There was also the idea that there was a civic duty to serve one's city state, and each one had their own army
Fought a war against Algomndom, the king of the Mycenaeans. This story is known because it was written down in the Illiad by Homer. In this story the war started because of the Greek princess Helen being taken away. This war was thought to be legend, until some archaeological evidence recently might prove there actually was this war. The war may have led to the Mycenaeans downfall because of the resources it required
Tight formation of hoplites where they would stand shoulder to shoulder with an overlapping wall of shields. Their only weakness would be if they were being attacked from multiple sides, so Greeks would usually try to wedge themselves between something so they only had to fight in one direction
Battle where the Greeks set up their Phalanx between the Ocean and the mountains so the Persians could not get past them. The Greeks tired and were being slaughtered, so many retreated, but 300 Spartans stayed. This was a loss for the Greeks
Wrote about the Peloponnesian wars from his first hand accounts of fighting in it. He wanted to preserve what actually happened
Student of Socrates that wrote in Socratic dialogue, where a student reached a conclusion by Socrates asking questions. He started the school called the Academy and published "The Republic", which said philosopher kings should be in charge. He created Platonic Form, the idea that everyone is limited by their own senses
Storyteller that took other stories and combined them into one large epic. He did not write any of his stories down, but other people did later. He wrote the Iliad (about the Trojan War) and the Odyssey (Odesius tries to get home)
Alexander the Great
Tutored by Aristotle and kept a copy of the Illiad and claimed to be a descendant of Hercules. He conquered Persia by calling himself a liberator and using smart battle tactics. He continued conquering all the way to India until war elephants caused his soldiers to almost mutiny. On the way back to Macedonia, he stops in Babylon and dies of fever in his 30s
philosophy in Hellenestic period started by Epicureas that said the way to happiness is to put pleasure above all in life
Philosophy in Hellenistic period that was about accepting fate. The idea was that all are at the mercy of the divine, so nothing should really bother them. They were encouraged to be in politics because they were thought to make more clear decisions because they were not at the whim of their emotions
In the Roman Republic, there would be two of these president- like leaders at a time. This was to ensure that if one died, another would be able to take over. They served only one year, and could only get reelected every 10 years. They were elected by the military assembly
The Fathers of the Roman household that would rule over their family like a government. They had legal ownership of their children
main branch of the Roman government made of 300 men from aristocratic families that were appointed by the consuls. They had this job of making the laws for life. This branch became very powerful over time
Descendants of the Original Nobel of Rome that became land owning, aristocratic people. They held all of the high offices in the government and were required to serve in the military
the people of Rome that did not own land or could hold high positions in the government, but they could vote. This was a diverse group made up of both the rich and the poor
the Punic Wars
Series of wars between Rome and Carthage, their trade rival. The first was fought over Sicily, the second one was caused by Hannibal's hate of the Romans, and the third was for retaliation. After these wars Rome had no rivals, which led to a new level of power and wealth
Raised to hate the Romans, he took military from Spain and invaded Rome by land using cavalry, elephants and military over the alps. He made it into Italy with a huge army and the Romans were not prepared at all. He destroyed most of the Roman army using the feigned retreat tactic, but wasted time after Cannae which allowed the Romans to regroup and for them and the Scipio Africans to defeat him. After he committed suicide and his army was defeated Rome gained control of all of Carthage's territories
After his term as consul ends, he takes his legion with him to conquer Gaul. In his absence he becomes increasingly powerful, and the comes back to Rome as an invaders and names himself dictator for life. He increased the senate from 300 to 900 and appointed people loyal to him and outside the city of Rome. He also gave solders a raise, instituted some land reforms and destroyed democracy in Rome. Even though normal people love him, the powerful hate him which leads to his assination
took the message of Christianity and spread it throughout the Roman empire. The Pax Romana allowed for this travel, and his letters spread all around as a basis and interpretation of Christianity.
"Bread and Circuses"
Idea in Rome of keeping people entertained and fed to distract them from how bad their lives were. The poor were given daily rations of grain, and public entertainment kept on expanding
As the Romans conquered, they brought roman culture, language, architecture to other areas and provinces. This would unify the empire.
the Pax Romana
Time of peace and prosperity in Rome. This was caused by expanded trade (silk road), manufacturing (mass production of things like glass and parchment). Agriculture was still the number one job, and there was still a huge class divide with a lot of the poor suffering
the imperial cult
Augustus instituted a new religious cult that would serve to strengthen the empire. It became the most widespread government official religion in Rome and the cult of the emperors. The Imperial Cult served as a unifying instrument for the Roman world. They worshiped Julius Caesar as well as Augustus and Roma.
Adopted son of Julius Ceaser that takes over with Mark Antony after he dies. He had no previous experience in politics or military. He gives people Ceaser's money, which makes him the hero of the people. He defeated Mark Anthony and became known as Ceaser Augustus, Rome's first emperor and the end of the Republic
They are united by Atilla. These people kicked the Germanic People out of their homes. This caused the Germanic people to then migrate into Rome, which caused some problems for the Romans. This causes the fall of the Roman empire
Heresy that Jesus was just a man. When the council of Nicea forbade this heresy, it showed the codification of Christian Doctrine
Made rules about Monasticism that made it less about self punishment and more about community. He established the basic form of monastic life in the western church based on prayer, service, and community
Disputes over using these religious icons created a huge problem for Christianity. When the emperor banned the use of these, the pope didn't go along with it, which caused the Schism between the eastern and western churches.
Five Pillars of Islam
Five things that are part of being Muslim. They are pillar of faith, prayer, alms, fasting and pilgrimage
Rebirth of education and revival of studying classical works during Charlagmane's rule. This happened because monks were told to record works from Greece and Rome. Also Charlamane made palace schools which promoted learning and allowed for the king to surround himself with scholars
descendants of the same people as the French invade the north from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. They are part of the final Germanic migration and loved adventure, exploring, and raiding (especially Russia at first). They would raid England every summer and there was almost no protection against them. These invasions lead to feudalism because people need protection.
Using the speech of the people instead of latin opened up literature as a form of entertainment, because people did not have to learn a different language in order to read. This also widened the base of literature and allowed more people to read. Famous genres the opened up because of this were Heroic epics, Traubadour poetry, and Courtly Romance
Mix of religion with classical philosophy. It attempted to take the logic based analysis of Greek philosophers and apply it to Christian faith. The founder was Abelard, who thought church teachings should be questioned, and the most famous was Thomas Aquinas
Improved agriculture system in the high middle ages that used 2/3 of the land for crops and the other 1/3 for animals, and would rotate the fields used for the crops or the animals. This created a greater supply of food, which caused healthier lives and therefore a population boom. It also allowed people to make a profit from farming, which caused a start of a break from feudalism and more trade.
The grand artistic achievement of the middle ages because it took a lot of creativity and generations to build churches of this style. It was tall and pointy to draw people's eyes to heaven, used thinner walls because of supports on the outside, and caused stained glass windows to become a major artform
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
the Norman Conquest
William of Normandy gained the papal blessing to become the new king of England, and then he invaded England. He defeated Harold Godwinson because he had horses at the Battle of Hastings. This causes the King of England to also be a vassal in France and created a weird relationship between the king of England and France
Signed by King John in England after the nobles threatened to kick him off of the throne. It is one of the most important document in English history, and established the concept of justice and rights of people, which influences the Bill of Rights. It was the first document that really limited the power of the king
Edward I of England created this to represent the people as called for by the Magna Carta. It is made up of the House of Commons and House of Lords. As the kings throughout history need taxes, this group gains more and more power.
Effort of Christians in Spain to take over and create a unified, Christian Spain. They kicked out the Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula
Benedictine monastery in France that strictly adhered to church doctrine and the rules of Benedict, which made them completely separate from the corruption of the church. They became influential and respected, other monasteries followed their example, and were seen as the holiest monks in Europe. This power allowed them to be the base of the reform movement, and influence who was pope
Practice were lords and kings appoint their own bishops, and these bishops had a lot of power and land. It was solved by the concordat of worms, which also increased the popes power
The holy office did this to deal with heretics. It was done using trials. If the accused confessed, then a fine was payed.
Council of Clermont
Pope Urban II made a passionate speech in front of a group of French Christians calling for the liberation of Jerusalem and also vilified the Turks.
Most disastrous and notorious crusade. The crusaders hired Venice to build boats, and to pay for these boats the crusaders conquered Zarah for Venice. They still do not have enough people to go on a crusade, so the crusaders sack and conquer Constantinople, one of the most powerful Christian cities in the world.
In Asia for a long time, and was eventually transported to Italy by rats when trade was opened up by the Crusades. This disease had a 50-60% mortality rate and killed 1/3 of the European population. It was a natural disaster and made people fascinated with death and think the Apocalypse was occurring. It also increased anti-antisemitism because of the belief of Jews poisoning the wells
The core of the English army in the 100 years war. The bow's limbs were super long and the arrows could go so fast that they could go through the armor of the knights, which made the French's armor useless
Joan of Arc
Lead armies in France in Battle in the name of God. She wins battles, protects the succession of the French crown by keeping the eldest son as king instead of Henry V, and gives confidence to France. She is executed as a heretic
changes warfare and is used in the 100 years war
Urban VI wanted the papacy to return from Avignon to Rome, which made the French Cardinals are upset. They elect a new pope, which divides Europe. The Council of Piza tells both popes to resign and elect a new pope, which meant there were now 3 popes. This was solved in 1414 with the Council of Constance when Matin V is selected as the pope.
Intelligent and confident ruler, and during her time Europe had a cultural renaissance. He religious policy was moderate protestant church and established the Anglican church. Her act of supremacy placed her at the head of the church, but also tried not to offend the Catholics. In foreign policy, she was cautious but also gave slights to Engalnds enemies, such as when she gave support the the Netherlands and then the Huguenots in Spain.
A lawyer in England that wrote "Utopia" which describes a perfect christian world without evils. He thinks people can be involved in politics, but faith should come first. He becomes close to Henry VIII and Lord Chancellor.
Law student and monk that taught bible and scripture at a university. He was worried about the church, and believed in "justification by faith", where if faith is strong enough, salvation is assured along with the idea that the bible is the sole religious authority. When the church sold indulgences, he got angry and posts the 95 theses, a criticism of the papacy and the church. He printed copies and eventually calls for the papacy to be completely overthrown, attacks the system of sacraments, and developed the idea that people should not just do good work for the sake of salvation
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Married his brothers widow, Catherine of Aragon, who was connected to the kings of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Once he wants an annulment, her connections prevent the pope from granting one. He then marries Anne Boleyn and puts himself at the head of the church with the Act of Supremacy. He then marries Jane Seymor after executing Anne for treason, who has a boy that takes over once he dies
part of Calvin's spin on Lutheranism that stated that it is already determined who is going to heaven or hell. This means there is no certainty of earning salvation because it is already destined. People who believe in this believe that if they are a good christian, then it means that God already knew they would be good and they are going to heaven
Because the Catholic church is loosing followers to Protestantism, they try to reform. It starts with the revival of the old, such as bringing back monasticism, more active preaching, and church involvement in social welfare. The Jesuit order is created and the papacy is revived
Ignatius of Loyola
Spaniard that created the society of Jesus (Jesuits). He was a solider, and was inspired to become a priest after reading a saint book and the bible while in the hospital. He wrote "The Spiritual Exercises" and pushed for strict obedience to the papacy and military like disciple for priests. The goal of the Jesuits is education, missionary work, and stopping the spread of Protestantism. They become the farthest traveling missionaries of the Catholic church
Edict of Nantes
made by Henry IV of Navarre, who was a Huguenot that converted to Catholicism to keep the peace. In order to keep peace in France, he created this, which appeased both sides. It stated that Catholicism is the official religion of France, but allowed Huguenots to practice religion freely
Leonardo da Vinci
Encompassed all that it meant to be a Renaissance Man. He was a scientist, artist, was involved in politics, knew anatomy, and thought of inventions. He is known for his artworks "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper"
Created the printing press and prints the bible. The printing press allowed for books to be made much faster, which made them cheaper and more widespread. Because people did not have to be rich to buy books, literature becomes available to a wider group than ever before. It also is a huge step forward towards education and is a factor in the protestant reformation
the study of humanity and concentrated on human achievements, thoughts, and feelings during the Renaissance. It included studying literature, philosophy, ethics, and history. These people were the philosophers of the renaissance.
An Italian explorer that exposed Europe for the first time to the Americas. This happened because he thought that sailing West across the Atlantic would lead him to a more direct route to India, but instead he found the Americas. He thought that he had landed in India, and looked for gold and converts
Started to map out more of the world. He set out on a quest to travel around the world. He was killed in the Philippines, but his boat made it all the way around the world
Treaty of Tordesillas
agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
He is welcomed by the Aztecs and King Montezuma as a god. He stays and is impressed with the Aztecs, but makes alliances with surrounding tribes. Conflict between the Spaniards and Aztecs break out. There is a genocide of the Aztecs, and smallpox breaks out, killing most of them
Forced labor tributes from native people in farms and mines. The natives were treated absolutely terribly by the Spanish. When people began to speak out against this, there is a search for labor from other parts of the world, which leads to slavery in the Americas
used for one of the first times for overseas travels from Europe to the Americas. Overseas voyages were very risky and cost a lot, but their rewards could be great. People would invest in this, and would share in the risk
Philosophy that a country's power is determined by its wealth. It focuses on getting the most gold and silver. The purpose of a colony is to make its mother country richer, and government is heavily involved in trade. This idea is the reason so many European countries are heavily interested in setting up colonies and having the best trade
Bill of Rights
Made during the reign of Mary and William of Orange. It guarantees the rights of the people and sets up the limited monarchy of England. It gives basic rights in Europe, and is extremely influential on the US government
A fantastic military leader that was a leader in Parliament and led the Puritans. He was put in charge of England's government, and he inserts puritan social attitudes. He becomes more like a monarch, and eventually gets rid of Parliament and calls himself "Lord Protector".
English Civil War
The Puritans are led by Oliver Cromwell to rebel against the Monarchy. They behead Charles I and abolished the monarchy, establishing a common wealth. Cromwell inserted puritan social attitudes, and eventually disbands Parliament and becomes a dictator under the name of "Lord Protector". Charles II is restored to the throne, but now Parliament has more power
Peter the Great
Russian Czar that traveled to Europe and wanted changes in his country. He conquers the port city of St. Petersburg and creates Russia's first navy. He creates senate, newspaper, and a tax on beards. He advocated for trade, a strong central government, and women's rights. He also takes over the Orthodox Church
Known as the sun king. He expands Versailles to show his power. He is extremely controlling of the nobility, and has the concept that the nobility's power comes from the king, not from their noble status. He went against Protestantism and spent way too much, which impacts France for generations
Ruler having complete control in a country. It comes from an idea that the king only has to answer to God. The king is a holy, ordained leader
Peace of Westphalia
One the most important peace treaties that comes from the Thirty Years War. It is seen as the beginning of modern diplomacy. It was secular, because the pope was not involved. Also both winners and losers of this war negotiated, which makes it a model for modern treaties
Thirty Years War
Started in the HRE when the Hapsburgs tried to force Catholicism on the Calvinist province of Bohemia. The Holy Roman Empire and Spain joined the Hapsburgs. Denmark and Sweden supported the protestants. Even though France was Catholic, it took the side of the Protestants because the Hapsburgs were their enemies. It was solved with the Peace of Westpahia. This conflict results in the HRE dissolving and France gaining territory
Art style that is a rejection of the renaissance emphasis on order and realism. The artists are trying to capture the suffering and anxiety of the time period through disproportional shaped and raw emotion. El Greco was a Spanish artist from Greece who set the standard for this style
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