Chapter 13&14 final

In most U.S. jurisdictions, juveniles are defined as individuals between the ages of:
7 and 18
One age-old mechanism for dealing with unruly children was ____, which served as a primary means for teaching skilled trades to the children of the middle and upper classes.
the apprenticeship system
____, which involved relocating
children to farms in the West and Midwest, was believed to have several advantages over ____.
Placing out; houses of refuge
During the late 1800s a new group of reformers known as the ____ began to advocate instituting a juvenile court to deal with youth problems
child savers
The legal philosophy justifying state intervention in the lives of children is called the doctrine of:
parens patriae
The Juvenile Court Act of 1899 included three of the following requirements. Which one does NOT belong?
Waiver to adult criminal court for serious offenses
The U.S. Supreme Court case ____ greatly expanded the overall due-process protections afforded juveniles within the juvenile court
In re Gault
In the case ____, the Supreme Court ruled that delinquency charges must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt where there was a possibility that a youth could be confined in a locked facility.
In re Winship
Actions taken by citizens to respond to delinquency constitute a(n) ____ process that operates outside the official agencies of juvenile justice.
informal juvenile justice
Your textbook names four typical police responses to juvenile cases. Which of the following is NOT one of those typical responses?
Refer to school
Regardless of any other factors, as the ____ increase(s), so will the likelihood of arrest.
seriousness of the offense
When police have contact with juveniles in lower-class communities, ____ become more likely because ____ are believed to be ineffective in most cases.
formal responses; informal responses
In ____, the Supreme Court ruled that parents or attorneys do not have to be present for juveniles to waive their rights.
Fare v. Michael C.
Your textbook describes three trends in juvenile processing, which are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
Handling more cases within school or church settings
Diversion can occur at any stage of the juvenile justice process, but it is most often employed before:
Diversion can occur at any stage of the juvenile justice process, but it is most often employed before:
There are three primary reasons for the practice of detaining juveniles, which are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
To provide an example of general deterrence to the rest of the community
Besides the increasing number of juvenile cases transferred, there have been three additional developments in this area. These are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these developments?
An increasing rate of juvenile cases transferred
Before adjudication can take place, several preliminary actions are necessary. Three are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
A jury must be selected
The most frequently used disposition in juvenile courts is ____, followed by ____.
probation; placement
A fundamental philosophical change in the focus of juvenile justice is reflected in the three new disposition or sentencing practices that are listed below. Which of the following does NOT belong?
The use of work-release programs to encourage juveniles to pay for their own placement
Three general types of dispositions are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
The use of a school-based supervision program
Probation officers usually perform four important roles in the juvenile justice process. Three are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
They enforce parental liability sentences
Three of the following are types of restitution that are discussed in your textbook. Which of the following does NOT belong?
Educational restitution
For which of the following methods for transferring juvenile cases to criminal court are no national statistics available?
prosecutorial transfer
For which of the following types of blended sentences may a juvenile court impose a juvenile correctional sanction that remains in force after the offender is beyond the age of the court's extended jurisdiction, at which point the offender may be transferred to the adult correctional system?
juvenile-contiguous blend
Between 1980 and 2006, what was the trend in the juvenile violent crime index arrest rate?
The investigative abilities of the police should be improved and made easier by the expansion of:
community policing
Perhaps the thorniest issue with DNA technology is:
how the DNA database will be collected and used
Advocates of the crime control model consider ____ at any stage, other than perhaps at trial, a luxury and an unnecessary impediment to the efficient operation of the process.
legal representation
Which of the following supporters maintain that a crafty lawyer may be able to win the freedom of a factually guilty client by means of a legal technicality?
Crime control model
Due process model advocates believe that the ____ is a critical stage in the administration of justice.
preliminary hearing
In practice, the ____ is a sham because it has become nothing more than a rubber stamp for the prosecutor.
grand jury
Today, more jurisdictions are ____ and using ____.
enacting mandatory sentencing statutes; sentencing guidelines
If the crime control model dominates the future of the administration of justice, it is likely that ____—following the few trials that occur—will be strongly discouraged and limited.
If the due process model dominates the administration of justice in the future, there will probably be no limitations on:
the right to appeal
Juvenile courts are currently:
all of the above
In the future, there may be no practical need for a separate juvenile justice process because:
juvenile offenders are being treated exactly the same as adult offenders in many situations
Participatory justice is a form of:
restorative justice
Which of the following is a strategy in which disappointment is expressed for the offender's actions, the offender is shamed and punished, and there is a concerted effort on the part of the community to forgive the offender and bring him or her back into society?
Reintegrative shamingp
Perhaps the most divisive issue that will confront correctional policy makers in the future is whether increasingly scarce resources should be devoted more to ____ or to ____.
punishment; rehabilitation
Recent history demonstrates that increases in the use of alternatives to incarceration ____ the use of incarceration.
do not necessarily decrease
Your textbook names three general cost-reduction strategies for American corrections in the future. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
Having inmates guard each other
Which of the following amendments to the U.S. Constitution will have to be respected and will no doubt set the outer limits of what corrections in the future might be?
____ is a dispute resolution process that brings disputants together with a third party who is trained in the art of helping people resolves disputes. The agreed-upon resolution is formalized into a binding consent agreement.
If the future of law enforcement increasingly reflects the principles and policies of the crime control model, then you might expect:
fewer limitations on how police attempt to combat crime
Today, the preliminary hearing is used mostly for testing evidence against the defendant
Greater intrusions into people's lives will be facilitated by future advances in electronic surveillance.
If the crime control model dominates the future, criminal courts will probably have to handle an increasing number of juvenile offenders.
It is conceivable that sometime in the future the entire juvenile justice system could be eliminated entirely.
According to the FBI's counterterrorism policy, terrorism and crime are separate phenomena.