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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (74)
An extinct species of humans. Thicker bones, shorter, heavier, stronger, less smart, slower, required more food to feed. Either were extinct due to fight with homo sapiens or were bred into our species and engulfed.
The humans we are today.
Eve is the furthest human back we have the DNA of. Related to all humans today.
When humans decided to leave their homeland Africa and populate the rest of the world.
Humans all came from Africa then migrated out.
Early stone age. Time at which humans began to make more advanced technologies. Stone tools and weapons such as spears. Hunters and gatherers.
Northern hemisphere frozen into ice. Global freezing. Set human migration back.
End of the stone age. Domestication of animals, settlements, advanced stone tools. After ice age
The transformation from a hunting and gathering species (Paleolithic) to a farming society. Diet changed to cultivated foods. Most people ate domesticated animals and bread. Wheat was main food source.
Humans taking animals and breading them for food or planting crops for food. Domestication caused animals and plants to genetically modify to be more desirable for humans. For example, corn got bigger, chickens laied more eggs.
Getting more crops for less effort
A civilization in which you grow crops for food. Hoe based Agriculture.
Rely on animals and farming to survive.
Marking done by early humans. Prove our existence and how we lived.
The diet of gathering and hunting societies, which included a wide array of plants and animals.
Region that includes the modern states of Iraq, Syria, Israel/Palestine, and Southern Turkey; the earliest home of agriculture. Known for its ability to grow crops
A human society that relies on domesticated animals rather than plants as the main source of food; pastoral nomads lead their animals to seasonal grazing grounds rather than settling permanently in a single location.
A society in which economy is based on agriculture/crops.
Early discovery of copper. Advanced weaponry and armor. Created the base of early warfare.
A way of organizing society based on your kin: Direct relatives/closely related
Single power owned by one man.
The single power in a chiefdom. organized armies, government, crops, village, in charge of irrigation. Become a chief due to inheritance or qualities.
Political Organization: Chief is the head.
A settled community that works together to produce a stable living environment.
a small city with its own sets of government and rules.
Positive and Negative World View
Egypt viewing kings as gods and wanting to do good to please the gods (positive). Mesopotamia thought kings were affiliated with gods but not gods and were scared of gods (negative).
like a church presented to the gods
Mesopotamia written language. Not able to translate until rosetta stone was found. Written usually on clay slabs.
Tigris and Euphrates
these rivers helped the mesopotamians by supplying them with plenty of water.
these were people who moved to the plains and who are now called sumerians. Speak Semitic. First recorded people in Mesopotamia. Had first "lugals/Big men"
was the king of akkad. He was also known for creating the world's first empire.
most famous for creating the code of hammurabi. Also found city of babylon
Code of Hammurabi
a set of laws created by hammurabi
Old, Middle and New Kingdoms
Memphis was Capital
United under King Mentuhotep
. "Golden Age"
. Property boundaries
. Territorial expansion
. Reorganization of Nome structure
United under Pharaoh Ahmose I
. New Empire
. Expansion period
. Military conquest
. Peak of power
a complicated written language created by the egyptians.
the position, the rank, or the dignity of a king
was the fertile land on the banks of the nile. Egyptians used this land for growing their crops.
a means of supplying water to different areas of land for crops.
this land protected egypt on both sides. Barren desert
Pharaoh of egypt. unified upper and lower egypt. Also founded memphis
had a long and prosperous reign characterized by diplomacy with neighboring nations rather than long military campaigns, a strategy that strengthened Egypt's security and power
longest reigning FEMALE ruler. Also she reigned during one of the intermediate periods. Dressed and presented self as a man. Only distinguished as female by breasts.
Created one of the earliest known peace treaties with the hittites. Regarded as greatest pharaoh ever.
How and Why egypt Developed
- Code Of Hammurabi
- two major kingdoms developed along the Nile. Historians call them Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.
- Nile river allowed irrigation systems and agriculture
- Positive World View
- Egypt was brought together under one ruler—King Narmer (sometimes called Menes). This is recognized as the beginning of the Egyptian civilization.
How and Why mesopotamia Developed
- People came to fertile parts of mesopotamia and colonized
- City States
- Negative worldviews
-Many battles over fertile crescent
- Mesopotamia is situated between two very fertile rivers, which allowed agriculture to expand for the first time in human history
- Tigris and Euphrates = Rivers
The hierarchy of people who lived in a civilization
Kings have God given right to rule and it's a sin to rebel against them
Gods having human traits. Sumerians created that belief
Oldest son of King is next ruler. Way to keep rule in a single family (dynasty)
Ox bone or turtle plastron. Burned and cracks were read by to king to predict the future or ask gods questions.
Shang dynasty ruled in yellow river valley.
Chinese craftsmanship made of bronze. Holds wine and was buried with the dead.
Respect for elders/parents.
sediment formed by the accumulation of wind-blown silt that blows into the yellow river to create an area great for farming.
Fear ancestors and try to keep them happy.
Most precious material in china. More value than gold. Good luck.
Birthplace of chinese civilization. Cradle of chinese culture. Second longest river in China. First chinese civilization.
Longest river in China. Also played huge role in Chinese development
Chinese food. Filling and somewhat healthy. Could feed a lot of people for a cheap price.
People that lived in the bronze age civilization - members of the Bronze Age civilization in Crete (3000- 1050 BCE). Did not emphasize military and were isolated.
An island in Aegean Sea that is considered the birthplace of Greek Culture.
The first Greeks, first to speak the Greek Language, influenced by Minoans. Collapsed around 1100 BC.
Socratic method = asking questions
-Reject material wealth
-Look for good in soul
-Executed because of his beliefs
Founded "The Academy" many subjects, big on math
-Distrust of the democracy
-Nature of the soul (love and virtue)
-Attended "The Academy"
-Taught Alexander the Great
-Rely on senses for observation
-More like a scientist
A war between Athens and Sparta, the two most powerful polis's in Greece. War ended with Sparta on top. Athenians were wiped out due to a plague that hit Athens at the height of the war
Polis in Greece. Sparta was famous for its intensity and love of warfare. Women were respected more in Sparta than other Polises because they had the important job of raising soldiers.
Polis in Greece. Athens was famous for its intelligence and love of art and literature.
Born In Macedonia, Son of Macedonian king. He took control and set out to conquer Persia and succeeded. He died young and his leading commanders took over and divided his kingdom into city states.
Greek city state
-believed in different gods
-competed against eachother
A sporting event that city states from all over attended. Only One Winner or Each event, Competed naked.
3 Systems of democracy (don't have to know by Greek names)
Primary governing body
Held several meeting a year regarding war, law and state matters
Also called "council of five hundred" - assembly of 500 men from each of the 10 athenian tribes.
Chosen by lottery
They oversaw daily operations - decided issues to bring to
The athenian courts
Any male citizen over 30 could serve as juror
Decisions made on majority vote
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