APES Chapters 10 & 11 Vocab
Terms in this set (80)
maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
The maximum amount of a renewable resource that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource.
The cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service.
An area similar to a suburb, but unconnected to any central city or densely populated area.
A zoning classification that allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area.
national wildlife refuge
A federal public land managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife.
environmental mitigation plan
A plan that outlines how a developer will address concerns raised by a project's impact on the environment.
environmental impact statement (EIS)
A document outlining the scope and purpose of a development project, describing the environmental context, suggesting alternative approaches to the project, and analyzing the environmental impact of each alternative.
ecologically sustainable forestry
An approach to removing trees from forests in ways that do not unduly affect the viability of other trees.
Highway Trust Fund
A U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways.
Development that fills in vacant lots within existing communities.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
A 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.
A planning tool used to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods.
A U.S. classification used to designate lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction.
national wilderness area
An area set aside with the intent of preserving a large tract of intact ecosystem or a landscape.
A principle that grants government the power to acquire a property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish to sell it.
Land dominated by trees and other woody vegetation and sometimes used for commercial logging.
The phenomenon in which increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow.
sense of place
The feeling that an area has distinct and meaningful character.
A dry, open grassland.
Endangered Species Act
A 1973 U.S. act that implements CITES, designed to protect species from extinction.
urban growth boundary
A restriction on development outside a designated area.
An area surrounding a metropolitan center, with a comparatively low population density.
A set of principles for community planning that focuses on strategies to encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities.
A fire deliberately set under controlled conditions in order to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass on a forest floor.
resource conservation ethic
The belief that people should maximize use of resources, based on the greatest good for everyone.
The method of harvesting trees that involves the removal of single trees or a relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest.
A method of harvesting trees that involves removing all or almost all of the trees within an area.
tragedy of the commons
The tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain.
transit-oriented development (TOD)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth.
A large area typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species.
The degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs.
Urbanized areas that spread into rural areas, removing clear boundaries between the two.
A person or organization with an interest in a particular place or issue.
individual transferable quotas (ITQs)
A fishery management program in which individual fishers are given a total allowable catch of fish in a season that they can either catch or sell.
An agricultural technique in which trees and vegetables are intercropped.
An agricultural technique in which plowing and harvesting are done parallel to the topographic contours of the land.
A substance, either natural or synthetic, that kills or controls organisms that people consider pests.
The energy input per calorie of food produced.
Livestock or poultry consumed as food.
Agriculture that applies the techniques of mechanization and standardization.
A pesticide that targets species of insects and other invertebrates.
Ingestion of too many calories and improper foods.
A shift in agricultural practices in the twentieth century that included new management techniques, mechanization, fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop varieties, and resulted in increased food output.
A pesticide that targets plant species that compete with crops.
The condition in which food insecurity is so extreme that large numbers of deaths occur in a given area over a relatively short period.
Having a diet that lacks the correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
economies of scale
The observation that average costs of production fall as output increases.
Fertilizer produced commercially, normally with the use of fossil fuels.
A pesticide that remains in the environment for a long time.
A condition in which people do not have adequate access to food.
concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
A large indoor or outdoor structure used to raise animals at very high densities.
A condition in which people have access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life.
An agricultural method in which farmers do not turn the soil between seasons, used as a means of reducing erosion.
The decline of a fish population by 90 percent or more.
The unintentional catch of nontarget species while fishing
An agricultural method in which two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction.
An increased concentration of a chemical within an organism over time.
integrated pest management (IPM)
An agricultural practice that uses a variety of techniques designed to minimize pesticide inputs.
Production of crops with the goal of improving the soil each year without the use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.
A pesticide that targets a narrower range of organisms.
An agricultural method that utilizes large plantings of a single species or variety.
A pesticide that breaks down rapidly, usually in weeks or months.
A deficiency of iron.
Fertilizer composed of organic matter from plants and animals.
The transformation of arable, productive land to desert or unproductive land due to climate change or destructive land use.
Agriculture that fulfills the need for food and fiber while enhancing the quality of the soil, minimizing the use of nonrenewable resources, and allowing economic viability for the farmer.
An agricultural method in which land is cleared and used for a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients.
Farming aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish, and seaweeds.
A pesticide that kills many different types of pests.
An individual that survives a pesticide application.
Agriculture that applies the techniques of mechanization and standardization.
An agricultural technique in which crop species in a field are alternated from season to season.
Feeding herds of animals by moving them to seasonally productive feeding grounds, often over long distances.
A commercially harvestable population of fish within a particular ecological region.
A cycle of pesticide development, followed by pest resistance, followed by new pesticide development.
A form of soil degradation that occurs when the small amount of salts in irrigation water becomes highly concentrated on the soil surface through evaporation.
A plant that lives only one season.
A plant that lives for multiple years
The condition in which not enough calories are ingested to maintain health.
A form of soil degradation that occurs when soil remains under water for prolonged periods.