Con Bio Exam 2
Terms in this set (84)
Describe a metapopulation.
population of fragmented subpopulations occupying spatially separate habitat patches in a fragmented landscape of unsuitable habitat
Growth rate equation
r = (b-d) + (i-e)
Source and sink
Source = local population
Sink = nearby populations
What is the lambda of a population sink?
less than 1
What is the lambda of a population source?
greater than 1
Define Population Viability Analysis (PVA).
uses demographic data to understand the relationship between future survival in small or endangered populations and threats or management options. It can also predict the effect of chance events on persistence.
True or false: PVA models tend to be species specific.
4 major chance association events that will affect survival in small populations
1. natural catastrophes (fire, floods, earthquakes)
2. genetic factors (drift, founder events, inbreeding)
3. environmental uncertainty
4. demographic stochasticity
What is the main application of PVA?
extinction risk: predicting the probability of population decline in a given time period
4 factors that are very important in PVA models
1. demographic uncertainty - random events acting on survival/reproduction
2. environmental uncertainty
3. natural catastrophes
4. inbreeding - only relevant to very small populations
Galapagos penguin example
What comes out of a PVA?
Prediction involving a population threshold, probability that a population will reach that threshold, and an interval of time for which the prediction pertains.
Insights through sensitivity analysis.
Valuable synthesis about what is known (or not known) about a species' demography.
What are the types of stochasticity?
Generally describe the basic components and process of a PVA.
Organize data and come up with potential options.
Assess risks and perform sensitivity analysis.
Rank options then select and implement management plan.
Monitor and evaluate.
Piping plover example
Threats: human disturbance
Disturbance can cause parents to desert nest
Predators are attracted to developments near beaches
Became protected under ESA, listed as threatened
Listing requires development of a recovery plan, which invoked a PVA to explore alternatives
Summarize the case of the Seaside Sparrow at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge.
Describe what you would do as the land manager.
Using PVA, predictions were made about the persistence of the Seaside Sparrow population over 50 years utilizing prescribed burn scenarios and marsh loss scenarios (high vs low marsh).
Results: Extinction was greater in the high marsh loss scenario and 5x greater than burn scenario. So, slowing the rate of marsh loss will have a greater impact on population viability than adjusting fire management!
Develop a plan integrating consideration of competing strategies and adaptations to sea level rise.
What are some of the caveats and criticisms of PVA?
Needs large amount of data.
Simplification of reality.
Highly sensitive outcomes.
Often no distinction between relative and absolute predictions.
Incomplete knowledge of basic population and life history information.
A predictive tool, not a definitive equation.
Unknown futures--initial conditions are never constant.
What percent of the Earth's land surface is protected areas?
What is a major factor in the success of a protected area?
Employment of local people
Why were protected areas set up?
To preserve large, intact, functioning ecosystems.
To accommodate wide-ranging species, large disturbances, and meta-populations dynamics.
What is the world's largest national park?
Northeast Greenland National Park
270,000 square miles
Describe a hot spot.
Developed by Norman Myers (1988).
Area must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation.
How many hot spots have been defined by Conservation International? What percentage of the world's plant species and terrestrial vertebrate species are contained in these hot spots?
34; 50% and 42%
What are some criticisms of hot spots?
1. Do not adequately represent taxa other than vascular plants
2. Do not protect ecosystem services
3. Do not consider phylogenetic diversity
Will protecting tracts with a high diversity protect rare species?
16% of rare birds were found in cold spots
Describe extractive areas.
-Defined groups of people are given exclusive rights on the condition they follow sustainable practices
-Generally center around the exploitation of non-timber forest products (though not always)
-Prevents whole-scale conversion of an area by clarifying issues of access and ownership and generating reliable sources of revenue
What are the general principles of what an ideal reserve system should be?
Representative (protect some of everything)
Resilient (effective protection into the future)
Redundant (multiple sites as back-up)
Define faunal relaxation.
Also referred to as extinction debt;
**Parks lose species over time
List some of the characteristics of what is considered a "better" reserve design.
Ecosystem completely protected
"Stepping-stones" facilitating movement
Diverse habitats (e.g.m mountains, lakes, forests) protected
Reserve shape closer to round (fewer edge effects)
Mix of large and small reserves
Reserves managed regionally
Human integration; buffer zones
(CHART WITH THE CIRCLES)
What is the SLOSS debate?
Single Large Or Several Small--in relation to land; basis of debate is that single large is not always best
Ex. mangrove islands
When would you want to use small reserves?
Fine for vegetative perennials, and small, sedentary animals, especially insects (which may comprise the bulk of biodiversity)
A few hectares may encompass all the appropriate habitat
What are the six critical issues for reserve design?
Heterogeneity and dynamics
Connecting fragmented habitats
Natural and modified landscape elements
What size reserve is the best?
Large reserves to maintain functional ecosystems and large scale population processes
Small reserves to protect rare elements
Coarse filter-fine filter approach
coarse: ecosystems, common species
fine: rare species
6 critical issues for reserve design
1. reserve size
2. heterogeneity and dynamics
3. landscape context
4. connecting fragmented habitats
5. natural and modified landscape elements
6. buffer zones
What are the different buffer zones?
Buffer zone (compatible with core goals)
Transition zone (can link several reserve systems)
What information would you need through GAP analysis to get a program started?
Data are compiled for region, or conservation unit.
Conservation goals are identified.
Identify existing protected areas and gaps in coverage.
Identify areas to fill the gaps.
Additional areas are identified and conservation management plan is developed.
Conservation areas are monitored to see if goals are being attained.
What is GAP analysis?
A proactive approach to protecting biodiversity
Seeks to identify gaps between land areas that are rich in biodiversity and areas that are managed for conservation; incorporates GIS
What species was studied in one of the first GAP analysis?
What are the three assumptions of GAP analysis?
1.The best time to save a species is while they are still common.
2.It is cheaper to maintain natural populations, than it is to intensely manage endangered populations.
3.We can use what we know about the distributions of vertebrate species and vegetation types to assess biodiversity at local, state, regional, and national levels
Problems with GAP analysis
Presumes that vegetation cover can predict vertebrate distribution accurately
Assumes predicted vertebrate distribution will be a good surrogate for diversity in other groups
What are biosphere reserves?
47 in US; represent the world's varied ecosystems and provide opportunities for scientific research and sustainable economic development based on ecological principles
What three parts are included in a biosphere reserve?
Core area, buffer zone, and outer transition area
Core area should consist only of monitoring
Buffer zone may have recreation or tourism
Whats the core area intended for?
A landowner may give up certain rights to their property through a document
Landowner will continue to own the property, and can still sell the property, as long as future owners follow conditions of the easement
Benefits: more cost effective for conservationists to protect certain parts of land
Traditional Ecological Knowledge
Basis for decisions about resource management, food, health, education, community
Specific ways to improve effectiveness of parks and protected areas
Under watch of one committed individual
Private reserves (Costa Rica already has 211)
Financing (taxes or user fees)
-strictly protected areas
-extractive reserves (sustainable harvest)
-intensive production areas
Need co-management between locals and advisors
Galapagos Marine Reserve
One of largest marine reserves in the world
Has extractive and non-extractive use zones
An attempt to establish a species in an area which was once part of its historical range, but from which it has been extirpated or extinct
Deliberate and mediated movement of wild individuals or populations from one part of their range to another
Addition of individuals to an existing population of conspecifics
Pere David's deer
Asian deer extinct in the wild for 800 years before reintroduced
Lived in swamps in China, but swamps were drained for agriculture
Lived in zoos until pop was over 1400
Why do reintroductions sometimes fail?
Success often requires repeated reintroductions of individuals, may need soft release, and often use captive-reared animals
The problems that caused the pop to be gone may still be an issue
Introduction with little to no prior acclimation to habitat
Gradual introduction that may include:
-behavioral training-including hunting and feeding
-group composition (young/old; male/female)
-release patterns and techniques
What is one of the most important considerations when reintroducing a species?
What was their previous cause of decline??
If this is not fixed before species is reintroduced, their populations will most likely fail again
Also, disease, habitat preference, home range size, social behavior, food requirements, shelter, relationships
American burying beetle
Created captive breeding program at St. Louis Zoo and many released into wild
Captive rearing program, using double clutching
Used gloves to simulate mother so they wouldnt imprint on humans & shock aversion therapy so they would avoid power lines
Radio transmitters and soft-release for reintroduced condors
Ban on lead ammunition
Captive breeding program
19 reintroduction sites
When and where was the first modern zoo?
Vienna in 1765
What is the "Ark Concept"?
Plant and animals can be returned to their native range when
1) the human population has stabilized and
2) the art of habitat restoration/reintroduction has been perfected
Limitations of the "Ark concept"
Limited zoo capacity, expensive, number of endangered spp increasing, lack of habitat for reintroduction
What did Ralls and Ballou discover at the National Zoo?
Evidence of immense inbreeding depression in their animals
Crnokrak & Roff
Study found that 90% of inbred individuals had poorer attributes than comparable outbred individuals
F refers to how closely related its parents are
When unrelated, offspring F=0
When inbreeding is complete F=1
What is the Species Survival Plan (SSP)?
A plan to minimize inbreeding, includes an elaborate mating system based on pedigree records
What're the problems with SSP?
Many species need 75-500 individuals for an adequate breeding pool, which is hard for larger animals space-wise;
there is sometimes a surplus of animals (think extra tigers and that poor baby giraffe wah)
Sumatran Rhino example
Captive breeding program, b/c highly endangered
Millions spent on breeding program for 38 individuals, but only 9 survive and 2 calves are produced
Money could have been spent for habitat, anti-poaching, etc.
Endangered Species Act (1973)
-purpose: to bring about the recovery of endangered and threatened species, whatever the cost.
Most far-reaching wildlife statute ever adopted by any nation
Important sections of ESA
Section 4: Listing, Critical habitat designation, Recovery, delisting, monitoring
Section 7: The Role of Federal Agencies, consultations
Section 9: Unlawful Activities
What is significant about section 4 of the ESA?
Critical Habitat Designation
Recovery & Monitoring
Safe Harbor Agreements are:
Voluntary agreements for recovering listed species: open to any non-Federal landowner. Encourages them to improve conditions for listed spp on their land
Endangered Species Committee of 7 Cabinet members; formed to grant power to condemn species to extinction if certain scenarios arise.
What are "distinct population segments"?
Represent enough evolutionarily significant genetic diversity to make all of the segments worth preserving
Evolutionarily significant unit (ESU)
A population that is substantially reproductively isolated from other populations of the same species
Problems with ESA
Narrow focus - way too many endangered species to all be successfully dealt with
Timing - species often not protected until they're almost extinct
CITES stands for...
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Convention on Biological Diversity
The first CBD held in Rio 1992; first global, comprehensive agreement to address all aspects of biological diversity: genetic resources, species, and ecosystems
NOT signed by US
Objectives of the CBD:
1) the conservation of biological diversity,
2) the sustainable use of its components,
3) the equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources
CBD 2010's Target: has it been met?
-no. Most indicators were negative, no government claims success, and direct pressures constant or increasing
Key findings of biodiversity futures
Continuing and accelerating extinction, habitat loss, and changes in distribution and abundance of biodiversity
High risk of dramatic biodiversity loss and degradation of services from tipping points
Loss preventable and reversible with urgent action
Explain the 'tipping point' of biodiversity
-A threshold that, when exceeded, biodiversity plummets to a changed state with less diversity, fewer ecosystems services, and a degradation of human well-being that no amount of time can alter.
(see graph in last lecture)
Ex. coral reef collapse, freshwater eutrophication
Aichi Biodiversity Targets?
1. Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
2. Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
3. To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems species and genetic diversity
4. Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
5.Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building
What are Costanza's Four Future Scenarios?
Star Trek, Mad Max, Big government, and Ecotopia
Technology fails us