77 terms

Beliefs Values Attitudes

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Beliefs
things we think to be true, not to be mistaken with the truth itself.
experiential beliefs
derrived from lived experiences
informational beliefs
supplied from others- usually from trusted souce
inferential beliefs
based off of assumptions; reach conclusions based off little information
ex.) similar looking student will be the same as previous student, although you dont yet know them.
Values
what we hold important
affective component
emotional factor
cognitive component
what we think (logical)
hierachically arranged
some values more important than others
values guide actions
genuine values should effect behavior
Attitudes
lead to how people respond. collection of beliefs and values
Hofstede's Value Dimension
looked at culutral patterns in values
Individualism VS. Collectivism
self (competition) vs. group (sacrafice, collaboration)
Masculinity VS. Feminity
clearly definied gender roles
feminine cultures have more job equality and availability
Power Distance
high or low:
high- expectation of power differences
low- expect and accept less power differences
*how do we feel about power differences and how do we deal with it
uncertainty avoidance
high- works hard to avoid uncertainty
(formal set of rules; lots of structure)
low- accepts uncertainty
*Americans are low-->middle
long term VS. short term orientation
long term- plans a lot
short term- dont plan a lot for future
Value Orientation Theory Kluckholn & Strodbeck
-looked for areas where cultures varied in values
Human's realtionship to nature
Activity Orientation
how culture views human activity:
1.)doing-using time well (efficiency)
2.) being- existing within moment, not worrying about getting tasks done.
3.) being-in-becoming- by being in moment you can become more; motive to advance
Temporal focus
past, present, or future; where is the focus
character of human nature
what are people really like? Good or bad?
Relationship of individual to individual
whats your obligation to others?
ex) Indians skip class to go with you to the doctor.
Dominant American Cultural Values
Science & Technology
Materialism
Activity and work
Effeciency and Praticality
Equality
Individualism (& Competition)
Worksheet
Villagers VS. Missionary
Elements of World View
belief system about nature of world:
-Belief system- cluster of beliefs; how you view world around you
-fundamental set of assumptions- your actions reflect what you experience without questioning it, just do it
Human's relationship to one another
assumed appropriate behavior towards others
(within culture, or groups)
ex) military
Humans relationship to nature
how should we treat it
recycling, go green movement
*colors of the wind song
Mechanistic/ Nonmechanistic
organized/ logical mannor VS gut feeling/ intuition
*America tends to me mechanistic
Dualistic/Nondualistic
view world as divided parts, organized, disconnected VS all put together, wholistic, seeing world as whole
ex) Dualistic-separation, difference of God and people: Catholics- Go to priest, not striaght to God
ex) Nondualistic- Christians- communion; Jesus living in your heart; power of Christ lives in me
Shame & Guilt Cultures
Shame- Usually more collectivistic; more likely to experience shame for yourself& family&friends
ex) Indian woman upset about being asked out- getting back to family and looking desperate
Guilt- Individualistic- usually just feel bad for self, not others.
Task VS People cultures
Task- goals; want to get things done
People- people befoer everything else
*Japanese going to England, put cup down on coffee table. English man moves and puts a coaster under it. Japanese gets highly offended. you should never put material items about comfort and face of the guest.
Life Cycle
Linear- phases of life and death have an ending point
Cyclical- patterns of rebirth; multiple cycles (reincarnation)
Animism
Spirits can reside i non iminant objects; anything in surrounding can have spirit
Role of Ancestorsand the dead
relationships with the dead
ex)going to visit graves
*Eastern view- relationship doesnt end at death but transition in relationship
*Western view- relationship ends
Fatalism
Believes everything is predetermined fate
nofatalism- nothing previously determined; what you do matters
Cultural Identity
belonging to a particular co-culture or ethnic group
ex)holidays; political group
Social Identity
Memberships (roles) within groups smaller than a co culture
Personal Identity
Individual characteristics
Which changes easier, World view or identity
*World view is different than perception
worldview is based on fundamental set of assumptions, therfore identity.
Characteristics of cultural identity
-central to ones sense of self
-dynamic- continually changing identity
-multifaceted- made up of a lot of different identities, sub group, cultures (clubs, sports, heritage)
-linked to communication practices
Argot
-form of private speech used by subgroups
-language develops around particular interests
-evident in criminal groups (gangs, prostitutes, drugs)
-way of using symbols, terms to get around illegal actions
Jargon
Professional, technical, specific speech
(well known profession)
Cant
specialized language of non-professional group (unfamiliar group)
ex)football team
Slang
used by subgroups (usually teens)
-text says used by stigmatized groups
- temporary
-fades in and out
Functions of Argot
-unify members (solidarity)
-shared language& identity
-can isolate outgroup members- exclusive; not wanting others to understand
-concealment- can hide things (drug dealers. prostitutes)
- can be used in codes
"Othering" subgroups
Labelling- used to label groups by diminishing them (radically, sexual orientation, mental illness)
Standpoint theory- response to othering of subgroups. The world looks different depending on where you stand in relation to it.
* to really understand someone, go spend time with them to understand where they're coming from
Colonalism
more powerful countries collonizing and controlling less powerful countries
Post Colonialism
Instantiation (occasion where you can see evidence of something) and lingering effects of colonalism
Orientalism
Characterizing non-western cultures as insignificant others
-made as entertainment rather than who they are
-result of post colonalism as a communication issue
Discursive imperalism
Labelling others by what they are not
ex) non-christian; nondemocratic
Suba Hern
Lesser others- those occupying a deprived, disenfranchised, silence space.
*minimizing others, while building ourselves up
*not typically known as one with a lot of knowledge
Early modes of "culture shock"
U Curve- linear steps
1.)eagar anticipation- getting excited about something
2.)"Honeymoon stage"- after arriving, everythings great
3.)"Everythings awful & terrible"- things get irritating, bothersome
4.)Acceptance(Reintegration)- start to accept things are different there
5.) Adjustment- completely adjusted
W curve
levels of satisfaction
*top points of W stand for high satisfaction
*bottom points of W stand for low satisfaction
Difference between U curve and W curve
W curve has reverse culture shock
W curve has re-entry phase
Self shock
culture we visit isnt what surprises you, but you yourself; it challenges everything you have ever known
Stress- Adaption growth
no unique culture shock; theory says it is just another stressor
*illustration is coil- each up hill you experience stress& find ways to deal and move forward &grow
*ongoing process, not linear
Sensual shock
-sensual experiences
-cultural develops appropriate senseual experiences, traveling challenges that because of differences
marginalization
when person loses a lott of home cultural identity and also dont identify with new culture
Separation/ segregation
maintain home identity by setting up their own community. dont identify or adopt new culture
Assimiliation
Leaves/ abandons home culture and completely embraces new culture
Integration
keep parts of home identity & adopt some of new culture. If you do so, youre called "multicultural person"
A philosophy of change
brain is an open system- still receptive to new information. Growth and learning still possible
Communication draws upon free choice
as a communicator, you are always faces with options and decisions to make. you always have a choice.
communication has consequences
make decisions based on these
orientation to knowledge
how you position yourself in relation to what you know
E'
idea that says if we eliminate all forms of "to be" wed be better writers
(be, am, are, is, was, were, been, being, maybe, contractions like 'm, 're, 's
Benefits of E'
-sound more intelligent
- clarity
-uses ambiguity
-more specific
-more description
-owning your comments
Nacirema
...
Interaction Management
how do you listen? do you interupt, do you talk over?
*woman from youtube- Krispy Kream video. Had great interaction management skills, didnt refuse or say it wasnt in her job description but asked questions to further assist customers needs
Tolerance for Ambiguity
have to accept that interactions between people from different cultures might be awkward or different.
ex) someone trying to speak spanish (badly) to a spanish person
Interaction Posture
do you look nervous or uncomfortable
Display of Repspect
if you show respect, more likely to get good response
*Buber& Community Building
Comm. types-
1.) Monologue- focus on self or speaking term without recognition of other. objectifying others. pay attention to own self interest. also disables us to listen to others because focusing on your turn
2.) Technical dialogue- task orientated conversation. talk about getting job done, giving infor and instruction, questions
3.) Genuine Dialogue- paying more attention to other more than self. Trying to understand others.
ex) jackie from Krispy Kream takes maturity/ balancing acts- acknowledge both self and other. take into consideration both view points through listening and understanding
multifacited
discussing 1 identity made of many components
Sapir Warf
language, perception, THOUGHT
universal desire to be free from constraint
negative face
mechanistic
culture uses facts and evidence to prove and reach conclusions
building a community needs
genuine dialogue communication
difference in men and womens speech
genderlect