AP Human Geography Key Issue 4
Terms in this set (23)
What is fundamentalism?
A literal interpretation and a strict and intense adherence to basic principles of a religion. Fundamentalists are usually very strict on how their religion interacts with different ideals and values of the rest of the world.
Describe why fundamentalism is a way that a religion claims to maintain their identity.
Because as global culture grows and dominates, the world and its cultures become more uniform, so they see fundamentalism as a way to not only distinguish themselves form the rest of the world, but also as a way of preserving their culture.
Why has religion versus social change come about? What is an example?
Because as global economy and culture expands to developing countries, people are exposed to belief, values, and ideologies that are not their own, and some of which may disagree with what their religion practices.
An example is the Taliban v. Western Culture.
Why is the Taliban v. Western Culture a clash between religion and social change?
Because when the Taliban gained power in Afghanistan in 1996 and imposed Islamic values in opposition to western values. Non-Islamic activities that were banned were those such as music, TV, internet, and soccer. They felt that western culture would make their religion go extinct. They were examples of fundamentalist's.
Why is Hinduism being targeted for Hinduism v. Social Equality?
Because there caste system is rigid. They limit "untouchables". It is part of the religion v. social change because it is believed in many other cultures that people are equal. Also it is argued that the "untouchables" did not receive all the necessary equalities such as health care, and clean water.
Give two examples of Religion v. Communism.
Christianity and Islam vs. the Soviet Union
Buddhism vs. Southeastern Asian Countries.
Explain the Christianity v. Soviet Union conflict.
It started when the Czar Peter the Great made Russian Orthodox Church part of the government. Then the Bolshevik revolution happened and after that, the communist gov.,lead my Lenin, created anti-religious programs inspired by Karl Marx. After the end of communist rule in late 20th century brought religious revival of the Roman Catholicism in Eastern Europe and Islam in Central Asia.
Explain the Buddhism vs. Southeastern Asian Countries conflict.
The Vietnam war destroyed many shrines physically. In turn monks immolated themselves in protest, meaning they burned themselves. The current communist gov. discourages religion. Therefore, many shrines and holy sites in need of renovation or fixing up have been overlooked in hope of just rotting out.
What is an example of religion v. religion?
An example is in Ireland, the Roman Catholics are fighting Protestants for national unity. A large majority of the population in Ireland is Catholic, but the northern portion is protestant. The UK controlled the Republic of Ireland for centuries but then economic problems caused a lot of people to emigrate put of the ROI controlled land. Eventually independence came after many bloody confrontations. Only problem is that Northern Protestants wanted to stay with UK. North Eastern Catholics discriminated against Northern protestants.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) Roman Catholics in the North for the fight for national unity.
The Ulster Defense Force (UDF) are an extreme protestant group that fight the IRA.
Why is there conflict in the Middle East, specifically Jerusalem, because of religion?
There is conflict because all three religions trace their origins to Abraham from the Hebrew Bible but then diverged.
- Judaism: claims the promised land
- Islam: Jerusalem is holy because it is where Muhammad ascended and other reasons.
- Christianity: Jerusalem because it is where Jesus lived most of his life.
All three major religions trace some part of their history back to this certain place.
What were crusades?
When the Muslims captured most of the Middle East, north Africa and France, European Christians launched a series of campaigns to take back land and Jerusalem from the Muslims.
How was Palestine affected by the conflicts in the Middle East over Jerusalem and what is now Israel?
Palestine was controlled by Muslim Ottoman Empire until after WWI. In 1947 the UN partitioned into two states into Jewish and Arab sections. This causes a lot of conflict.
What was the UN's original plan for Jerusalem?
It was supposed to be an international city controlled by the UN that was open to all religions.
List the timeline of events of conflict in Israel over boarders.
- UN creates the borders in 1947
- Israel declares that they are an independent state in 1948
- Independence War: 1948-1949-- Arab nations attacked and fought Israel. Israel ends up gaining territory. Jordan and Egypt gain land.
- 1956 Suez War-- Egypt seizes canal but Israel, France, and the UK fight to reopen it.
- 1967 Six Day War-- after being blockaded again, Israel launches a surprise attack gaining more land. (Old Jerusalem)
- 1973 Yom Kippur-- Israel is attacked by its neighbors but looses no ground
- 1979 Peace Treaty-- Israel returns Sinai to Egypt
Why is religious conflict going to be a continuing problem in Israel?
Because the three religions sacred spaces are all very close to one another.
What is the Israeli perspective of Israel?
vThat Israel is small country with a Jewish majority surrounded by hostile Muslim Arabs and the Israelis need strategic places of land to block attacks =----------69
What is the Palestinian perspective of Israel and who are they?
- people living in the west bank
- some citizens of Israel who are Arabs
- People who fled Israel after the 1948-49 war
- People who fled from the west bank or Gaza during 1967
- Citizens of surrounding countries.
They want their land back
Which organization leads the Palestinian fight?
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) but the Palestine's themselves are divided between the Fatah and the Hamas.
What is the controversy over the wall that the Israelis built surrounding Israel?
It was built to keep Palestinian suicide bombers out but some say that in building it Israel took to much land and that the wall cuts off some Palestinians from work, fields, and water.
Why Jerusalem important to the Jewish faith?
Important because the Temple built by King Solomon all that remains (the western wall) is in Jerusalem.
Why is Jerusalem important to the Islam faith?
Important because of the Dome of the Rock where it is said the Abraham was going to sacrifice his son Ishmael for God. Conflict arises between Islam and Christianity because Christians believe that Abraham was going to sacrifice his son Isaac, not Ishmael.
The sacred spaces and structures in Jerusalem for the different religions are very closer to each other which can cause conflict.
Will either the Israelis or the Palestinians relent in their wanting Jerusalem or not giving up Jerusalem?
No, Israel will not give the city back to the Palestinians and the Palestinians will not give up their claim.
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