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a field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the llifespan
a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with
a process in which new and different ways of interpreting and responding to the world emerge at particular time periods
qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specifice periods of development
Unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change.
inborn biological givens vs. complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
(1) development as lifelong (2) development as multidimensional and multidirectional (3) development as highly plastic (4) development as embedded in multiple contexts
events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in whwen they occur and how long they last
forces unique to a particular historic era that explain why people born around the same time tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times
in medieval Europe once children emerged from infancy ther were regarded as miniature already-formed adults
"tabula rasa" (blank slate) children in the beginning are nothing at all and all kinds of experiences can shape their character. Nurture to shape a child
Jean Jacques Rousseau
children were noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong. Adult training would only harm children.
older people can compensate for intellectual declines that, at times, may reflect hidden gains
measures of behaviour are taken on large numbers of individuals, age-related averages are computed to represent typical development
Austrian-born British psychoanalyst noted for her application of psychoanalysis to child therapy.
conscious, rational part ofo personality; emerges in early infancy, ensures that the id is redirected property
neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
1896-1980; swiss developmental psychologist who proposed a four-stage theory of cognitive development based on the concept of mental operations
a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environment influences
ecological systems theory
views the person as developing with a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
innermost level of the environment which consists of activities and interaction patterns in the person's immediate surroundings
social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences in immediate settings
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
investigator sets up a lab situation that evoke the behavior of interest so that every particpant has equal opportuniity to display responce.
researchers use a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view
Selection technique that involves asking all applicants the same questions and comparing their responses to a standardized set of answers.
clinical/case study method
brings together a wide range of information on one person, including interviews, observations, and sometimes test scores
directed toward understanding a culture or a distinct social group, achieving its goals through participant observation
researchers gather information on already-existing groups of individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences
group of participants studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as the participants mature
individuals born in the same period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions
genes are chemically marked in such a way that one member of the pair is activated, regardless of its makeup
people define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals
people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors.
percentage of instances in which both twins show a trait when it is present in one twin
range of reaction
each person's unique, genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions
the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment
to operate on and transform information, increasing the chances that we will retain information, use it effectively and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances
where we actively work on a limited amount of information, applying mental strategies
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
awareness that the self is separate from the surrounding world and can control its own thoughts and actions
the understanding that the physical properties of an object or substance do not change when appearances change but nothing is added or taken away ex:they know that a string of beads do not have more than a string where the beads are not spread out.
centered understanding; focusing on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction , returning to the starting point
the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers
show high rates of conflict, hostility, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior
a transitional form of supervision in which they exercise general oversight while permitting children to be in charge of moment-by-moment decision making
a tragic eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
eating disorder in which young people engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives
adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern
rules handed down by authority have a permanent existence, as unchangeable, and as requiring strict obedience
no longer viewing rules as fixed but seeing them as socially agreed on principles that can be revised when there is a need to do so
increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior, and movement toward a more traditional gender identity
small groups of about five to seven members who are good friends and, therefore, resemble one another in family background, attitudes, and values
a structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real-world problems
triangular theory of love
intimacy, passion, and commitment--shifts in emphasis as romantic relationships develop
Type A behavior pattern
extreme competitiveness, ambition, impatience, hostility, angry outbursts and a sense of time pressure
skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and mastery of social conventions
future-oriented representations of what one hopes to become and what one is afraid of becoming
parental imperative theory
identification with traditional gender roles is maintained during the active parenting years to help ensure the survival of children
"big five" personality traits
neuroticism, extroversion, openess to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
feminization of poverty
a trend in which women who support themselves or their families become the majority of the adult poverty population, regardless of age and ethnic group
the number of years of vigorous, healthy life an individual born in a particular year can expect
mutual withdrawal between elders and society takes place in anticipation of death
social barriers to engagement, not the desires of elders, cause declining rates of interaction
life-sustaining treatment is withheld or withdrawn, permitting patient to die naturally
advanced medical directive
a written statement of desired medical treatment shoud they become incurably ill
specification of treatments they do or do not want in case of a terminal illness, coma, or other near death situation
voluntary active euthanasia
doctors or others act directly, at a patient's request, to end suffering before a natural end to life
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