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135 terms

Human Growth and Development

STUDY
PLAY
human developmemt
a field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the llifespan
theory
an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
continuous development
a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with
discontinuous development
a process in which new and different ways of interpreting and responding to the world emerge at particular time periods
stages
qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specifice periods of development
contexts
Unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change.
nature-nurture controversy
inborn biological givens vs. complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth
life expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
lifespan perspective
(1) development as lifelong (2) development as multidimensional and multidirectional (3) development as highly plastic (4) development as embedded in multiple contexts
age-graded influences
events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in whwen they occur and how long they last
history-graded influences
forces unique to a particular historic era that explain why people born around the same time tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times
preformationism
in medieval Europe once children emerged from infancy ther were regarded as miniature already-formed adults
John Locke
"tabula rasa" (blank slate) children in the beginning are nothing at all and all kinds of experiences can shape their character. Nurture to shape a child
Jean Jacques Rousseau
children were noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong. Adult training would only harm children.
Tetens
older people can compensate for intellectual declines that, at times, may reflect hidden gains
Carus
four periods of life: childhood, youth, adulthood, senescence
Charles Darwin
natural selection and survival of the fittest
normative approach
measures of behaviour are taken on large numbers of individuals, age-related averages are computed to represent typical development
Alfred Binet
first successful intelligence test (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale)
Freud
Austrian-born British psychoanalyst noted for her application of psychoanalysis to child therapy.
id
largest portion of the mind; basic biological needs and desires
ego
conscious, rational part ofo personality; emerges in early infancy, ensures that the id is redirected property
superego
conscience; develops from interaction with parents
Erik Erikson
neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
Jean Piaget
1896-1980; swiss developmental psychologist who proposed a four-stage theory of cognitive development based on the concept of mental operations
ethology
concerned with adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
sensitive period
a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environment influences
ecological systems theory
views the person as developing with a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
microsystem
innermost level of the environment which consists of activities and interaction patterns in the person's immediate surroundings
mesosystem
connections between microsystems
exosystem
social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences in immediate settings
macrosystem
consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources
naturalistic observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
structured observation
investigator sets up a lab situation that evoke the behavior of interest so that every particpant has equal opportuniity to display responce.
clinical interview
researchers use a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view
structured interview
Selection technique that involves asking all applicants the same questions and comparing their responses to a standardized set of answers.
clinical/case study method
brings together a wide range of information on one person, including interviews, observations, and sometimes test scores
ethnography
directed toward understanding a culture or a distinct social group, achieving its goals through participant observation
correlational design
researchers gather information on already-existing groups of individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences
longitudinal design
group of participants studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as the participants mature
cohort effects
individuals born in the same period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions
cross-sectional design
groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time
longitudinal-sequential design
a sequence of samples are followed for a number of years
codominance
a pattern of inheritance in which both genes influence the person's characteristics
genetic imprinting
genes are chemically marked in such a way that one member of the pair is activated, regardless of its makeup
sub-culture
groups of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture
collectivist societies
people define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals
individualistic societies
people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
heritability estimates
measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors.
kinship studies
compare characteristics of family members
concordance rate
percentage of instances in which both twins show a trait when it is present in one twin
range of reaction
each person's unique, genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions
canalization
the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
genetic-environmental correlation
our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed
niche-picking
the tendency to actively choose and environment that complements our heredity
epigenesis
development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment
marasmus
wasted condition of the body caused by diet low in nutrients
kwashiorkor
unbalanced diet very low in protein
habituation
gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
mental strategies
to operate on and transform information, increasing the chances that we will retain information, use it effectively and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances
sensory register
sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly
working/short-term memory
where we actively work on a limited amount of information, applying mental strategies
central execute
directs the flow of information
long-term memory
permanent knowledge base
recall
remembering something in the absence of perceptual support
social smile
a smile evoked by a human face, normally evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
social referencing
reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
I-self
awareness that the self is separate from the surrounding world and can control its own thoughts and actions
me-self
all the qualities that make the self unique
cerebellum
aids in balance and control of body movement
reticular formation
structure of the brain that maintains alertness and consciousness
corpus callosum
large bundle of fibers that connects two cortical hemispheres
conservation
the understanding that the physical properties of an object or substance do not change when appearances change but nothing is added or taken away ex:they know that a string of beads do not have more than a string where the beads are not spread out.
centration
centered understanding; focusing on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
irreversability
an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction , returning to the starting point
hierarchial classification
the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
private speech
self-directed speech (once called egocentric speech)
scaffolding
adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
memory strategies
deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering
scripts
general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation
metacognition
thinking about thought
ordinality
order relationships between quantities
cardinality
the last number in a counting sequence
perspective talking
the capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling
distributive justice
beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly
peer groups
collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers
peer acceptance
refers to likeability
rejected-aggressive children
show high rates of conflict, hostility, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior
rejected-withdrawn children
passive and socially awkward
coregulation
a transitional form of supervision in which they exercise general oversight while permitting children to be in charge of moment-by-moment decision making
adolescence
the transition between childhood and adulthood
puberty
a flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
anorexia nervosa
a tragic eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder in which young people engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives
imaginary audience
adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern
personal fable
development of an inflated opinion of self importance
heteronomous morality
rules handed down by authority have a permanent existence, as unchangeable, and as requiring strict obedience
autonomous morality
no longer viewing rules as fixed but seeing them as socially agreed on principles that can be revised when there is a need to do so
gender intensification
increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior, and movement toward a more traditional gender identity
cliques
small groups of about five to seven members who are good friends and, therefore, resemble one another in family background, attitudes, and values
crowd
several cliques with similar values forming a loosely organized group
cross-linkage theory of aging
loss of elasticity in the body's connective tissue
basal metabolic rate
the amount of energy the body uses at complete rest
pragmatic thought
a structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real-world problems
triangular theory of love
intimacy, passion, and commitment--shifts in emphasis as romantic relationships develop
climacteric
midlife transition in which fertility declines
Type A behavior pattern
extreme competitiveness, ambition, impatience, hostility, angry outbursts and a sense of time pressure
hardiness
control, commitment, and challenge
crystallized intelligence
skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and mastery of social conventions
fluid intelligence
depends more heavily on basic information-processing skills
possible selves
future-oriented representations of what one hopes to become and what one is afraid of becoming
parental imperative theory
identification with traditional gender roles is maintained during the active parenting years to help ensure the survival of children
"big five" personality traits
neuroticism, extroversion, openess to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
feminization of poverty
a trend in which women who support themselves or their families become the majority of the adult poverty population, regardless of age and ethnic group
kin-keeper
gathering the family for the celebrations and making sure everyone stays in touch
functional age
actual competence and performance
young-old elderly
appear physically young for their advanced years
old-old elderly
appear frail and show signs of decline
active lifespan
the number of years of vigorous, healthy life an individual born in a particular year can expect
maximum lifespan
the genetic limit to length of life for a person free of external risk factors
implicit memory
memory without conscious awareness
remote memory
very long-term recall
prospective memory
refers to remembering to engage in planned actions in the future
terminal decline
refers to a steady, marked decrease in cognitive functioning prior to death
disengagement theory
mutual withdrawal between elders and society takes place in anticipation of death
activity theory
social barriers to engagement, not the desires of elders, cause declining rates of interaction
social convoy
an influential model of changes in our social networks as we move through life
passive euthanasia
life-sustaining treatment is withheld or withdrawn, permitting patient to die naturally
euthanasia
the practice of ending the life of a person suffering from an incurable condition
advanced medical directive
a written statement of desired medical treatment shoud they become incurably ill
living will
specification of treatments they do or do not want in case of a terminal illness, coma, or other near death situation
durable power of attorney
authorizes appointment of another person to make health care decision
voluntary active euthanasia
doctors or others act directly, at a patient's request, to end suffering before a natural end to life
anticipatory grieving
acknowledging that the loss in inevitable and preparing emotionally for it