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Terms in this set (87)
Sig Figs: know the rules.
addition/subtraction-the amount of numbers past the decimal can be no more than the weakest number
multiplication/division-the answer should have the same number of sig figs as the number with the smallest number of sig figs.
precision vs accuracy
precise-repeated measurements that are in agreement
accurate-measurement that matches the actual number
uncertainty in measure
when reading an instrument, you are only able to estimate ONE DIGIT beyond the smallest increment
percent error equation
[(actual - expiremental)/actual]x100
SI unit with factor labeling
Mega M 1,000,000(10^6)
Kilo K 1,000(10^3)
Hector H 100(10^2)
Deca Da 10(10^1)
Deci D 0.1(10^-1)
Centi C 0.01(10^-2)
Mili M 0.001(10^-3)
Micro U 0.000001(10^-6)
Nano N 0.000000001(10^-9)
Compare mass & weight
mass-amount of matter in an object (independent of gravity).
weight-measure of the force of gravity on an object(dependent of gravity).
physical changes + physical properties
-changes that take place without altering chemical composition (dissolving, tearing, melting, freezing).
-characteristics that can be observed without a chemical reaction. (density, boiling point, conductivity)
chemical changes + chemical properties
-change that result in new substances; Examples: Combustion - burning, oxidation - rusting, decomposition - rotting, etc.
-describes how one substance reacts with another.
reactants, yields, products
(a + b) > (c + d)
ten signs of a chemical reaction
1) bubbles appear. 2) A precipitate. 3) a color change occurs. 4) the temperature changes. 5) light is emitted
6) change in volume. 7) change in electronegativity.
8) change in melting/boiling point. 9) change in smell or taste. 10)change in any distinctive chemical or physical property.
difference between atom and an ion
(+) lost electrons- cation. (-) gain electron- anion
determine ion charge given electron, neutron, and proton data.
Every electron more than the number of protons is +1, and every electron less is -1.
when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
e=hv. e=hc/Y. c=vY. v=c/Y
where are the Metalliods, Transition Metals, Lanthaniides, Actinides, Halogens, Nobel gases, Alkali metal, and Alkaline Earth metals?
Metalloids- a type of hybrid sharing characteristics of metals + nonmetals (by the stair-step ladder)
Transition Metals- Your basic metals in the D-block of the periodic table. (g 3-12)
Lanthanides + Actinides- metals belong in the d-block by atomic number, but had the be included outside to keep the trend (below the periodic table, lanthanides on top)
Halogens- diatomic; the most reactive nonmetal (group 17)
Alkali metal-metals in group 1
Alkaline earth metals- found in group 2
Quantum Mechanical model of the atom
modern atomic theory describing the electronic structure of the atom as the 90% probability of finding electrons with certain regions of space.
Apply the Aufbau principle the Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund's rule to write electron configurations and orbital diagrams (1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, ...) of elements.
Aufbau - filling of electron levels from low to high energy.
Pauli - two electrons occupying the same orbital must have opposite spins.
Hunds - 1 electron must be given to each of equivalent suborbital; ie. 3 p and 5 d suborbital.
Identify the electron configuration for an Excited Atom
the last electron is taken
ex: 1s2 2s2 2p3 3s1
complete "Orbital Filling Diagrams" (given)
identify the information provided by 4 quantum #'s
Principal QN: the distance from the nucleus in which that specific electron will be found/Energy level/ (n)
Angular Momentum QN: portion of the energy level in which the electron is most likely found. This portion is called a sublevel. (L)
Magnetic QN:orientation of orbital along x,y,z axis (mL)
Spin QN: two electrons in an orbital must have opposite spins (+1/2 ; -1/2) (ms)
max # of electrons in an electron shell
max # of orbitals in an energy level
describe the origins of the periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev made it in 1869 by atomic mass, placing elements that shared characteristics in the same groups and periods, but in 1914 Henry Mosley rearranged it by atomic number.
describe the organization of the periodic table
The periodic table is organized into periods(horizontal rows) and groups(vertical columns) according to their atomic number, so that elements in the same groups and periods have similar physical and chemical properties.
contrast physical and chemical properties of metals, non-metals, and metalloids
metals: phys- Malleable, Ductile, Luster, High Density, Good Conductors
chem- Corrosion, React vigorously with acids not bases. lose electrons
nonmetals: phys- dull, Brittle solids, low density and conductivity
chem- Like to react with metals. gain electrons in bonding
metalloids: phys- the average of metals and nonmetals
chem- can gain or lose electrons based on location of stairstep
relationship between electron configuration of an element, its position on the periodic table, and its chemical properties...
Explain the physical properties of metals using the theory of metallic bonding, where positively charged metal ions "float" within a sea of mobile valence electrons.
Metals are conductive, malleable, and ductile due to this metallic bonding.
Describe the formation of a covalent bond between two nonmetallic elements.
-these bonds care either nonpolar covalent (for diatomic molecules; i.e. H2, F2, Cl2), or polar covalent (all others that are not ionic, or nonpolar).
-they share electrons to form bonds
Identify bonds as ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent using electronegativity values
Describe double and triple covalent bonds and draw Lewis structures to represent covalent bond structures containing single, double, triple bonds
-double has two bonds triple has three bonds (the more bonds, the stronger)
-multiple bonds are only on covalent bonds
exceptions to the octet rule
� Hydrogen (1 bond, 2 valence electrons only)
� Boron (3 bonds, 6 valence electrons only)
� Sulfur (can have 6 bonding atoms, or 12 valence electrons)
� Phosphorus ( can have 5 bonding atoms, or 10 valence electrons)
Explain the formation of a coordinate covalent bond (when one atom donates both electrons in a covalent bond).
when one atom donates both electrons in a covalent bond
Explain the modern interpretation of resonance bonding. Be able to draw/predict resonance structures from the molecular formula.
resonance- when there are more than one possibilities of a bond (there is always a resonance when there is a double or more bond). Draw arrows to show resonance
Describe the shape of simple molecules
2 domains: no lone pairs=linear
3 domains: no lone pairs=trigonal planar. 1 lone pair=bent
4 domains: no lone pairs=tetrahedral. 1 lone pair tigonal pyramidal. 2 lone pairs=bent
5 domains: no lone pairs=trigonal bypyramidal.
6 domains: no lone pairs=octahedral
Identify examples, structure and properties of polar and non-polar molecules.
Remember, all ionic compounds are polar. Also, molecules that contain polar covalent bonds, BUT THE ONES THAT ARE SYMMETRICAL, are nonpolar.
-all ionic bonds are polar
What are the attractions between molecules? How do they relate to attractive forces between atoms?
-intramolecular forces (they must be stronger, for they are holding more together)
Describe the three Intermolecular forces covered in class from:
London dispersion- nonpolar/weak
Distinguish among atoms, a molecular formula for covalent molecules, and a formula unit for ionic compounds
type 1: Ionic/ metal + nonmetal/ no roman numerals/ groups 1-2, 13/the ending becomes ide(except with polyatomic ions)
type 2: Ionic/ metal +nonmetal/ roman numerals/ group 3-13/the ending becomes ide(except with polyatomic ions)
type 3: Covalent/ nonmetal + nonmetal/ group 13-17/ know the prefixes/the ending becomes ide(except with polyatomic ions)
simple acids: H+ nm/ no O/use Hydro as prefix/end with hydro__ic acid/
Oxy acids: O is present/ no hydro/ ate>ic and ite>ous/ H+ONm
Distinguish between ionic compounds and covalent molecules.
Ionic- polar. nonmetal+metal. stronger
Covalent- nonpolar/polar. nonmetal + nonmetal. covalent np is weak, covalent p is medium
What is the Law of Definite Proportions
In a sample of a molecule or compound, the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions; i.e. water (H2O) is always 2 Hydrogens to 1 Oxygen. 4
Explain how a compound obeys the Law of Definite Proportions.
elements in compounds have definite ratios that they always keep ex:H2O > H4O2
What is the Law of multiple proportions
when 2 elements form more than one compound with the same mass of the other element, they are in small whole number ratios
Explain how two different compounds composed of the same elements obey the Law of Multiple Proportions.
Elements always stay in whole number ratios.
Memorize the charges of common monoatomic ions.
group 1=1 group 2=2 group 13= -3 group 14=4/-4
group 15=-3 group 16=-2 group 17=-1 group 18=0
Memorize those metals that have multiple charges, and use both the Stock Naming System (Roman numerals) and the Classical System for naming these metals in an ionic compound.
know how to figure out the charges
Know your safety rule (given)
A shopping mall wanted to determine whether the more expensive "Tough Stuff" floor wax was better than the cheaper "Steel Seal" floor wax at protecting its floor tiles against scratches. One liter of each brand of floor wax was applied to each of 5 test sections of the main hall of the mall. The test sections were all the same size and were covered with the same kind of tiles. Five (5) other test sections received no wax. After 3 weeks, the number of scratches in each of the test sections was counted.
Identify the following components of an experiment.
a. Problem: b. Hypothesis: c. Independent variable - d. Dependent variable - e. Control - f. Repeated trials - g. Constants -
A) The effect of the different floor waxes on the tiles.
B) If the more expensive floor wax is applied, then the tile will have less scratches.
C)The Floor Cleaners
E)The extra five tiles
F)five tiles as opposed to one
G)"the same kind of tile"
Law of the Conservation of Mass
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed
Difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
homo- mixture where substances are evenly mixed.
hetero- a mixture where different substances can be easily distinguished
Difference between an element and a compound
An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances, whereas a compound has many elements and can be broken down.
Homo, hetero, elements, compounds : salt water, gold, water, Italian dressing
salt water- homogeneous. gold-element. water-compounds. Italian dressing-Heterogeneous.
Difference between physical and chemical change
P-characteristics that can be observed without a chemical reaction.
C--describes how one substance reacts with another
Identify the following changes as physical or chemical:
a. water freezing - b. paper burning -
c. wax melting - d. metal rusting -
A)physical. B)chemical C) physical D)chemical
Addition/subtraction significant figures.
Multiplication/division significant figures.
-the answer has the same number of decimal places as the one with the fewest.
-round/add zeros to the answer until it has the same number of sig figs as the one with the fewest sig figs.
How many sig figs: 1.00 0.0035 0.004500 101
-3 -2 -4 -3
Follow sig fig rules:
a. 4.56 cm x 9.1 cm = b. 20.0 ÷ 4 =
c. 7.1 + 6.00 = d. 8.0 - 4 =
-41 -5 -13.1 -4
List the SI unit
a. Length b. mass c. volume d. temperature
e. time d. quantity
a. meters b. grams c. liters/meters^3 cubed d. kelvin
e. seconds d. moles
a.44mm = ___________km b.15Ibs = ______________ mg(11Ibs =454g)
c. 5x10^6sec =_____days d. 14110ft =____________m (1m=1.0936)
a. 0.000044 km b. 6810000.0mg
c. 57.870 days d.4300.78
How should all the equipment be read?
to one uncertain digit
List the equipment that can be used to measure volume
a ruler and a graduated cylinder
Who proposed the first atomic theory in the 1800's.
What has been changed
-Atoms can be subdivided
-Isotopes- like elements, unlike what Dalton said, can be different because their number of neutrons or electrons can be different, altering their mass and/or charge.
Who discovered the electron
Which number identifies the element
What is the mass number equal to
the number of protons and neutrons
How are the numbers of neutrons determined
Subtract the atomic number/# of protons from the atomic mass
How are the numbers of electrons determined in a neutral atom
It is the same as the number of protons
How are the number of electrons determined in a cation
its the number of protons - the charge of the cation
How are the number of electrons determined in an anion
It is the number of proton + the charge of the anion
Besides the atomic number, what other number can be found on the periodic table.
The average mass of the atoms of an element (protons and neutrons).
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Calculate the average atomic mass for element Z, if it has the following isotopes:
Z-56 25% 55.98 amu Z-57 75% 56.99 amu
56.7 (mass of isotope a x abundance of IA) + (mass of IB x % of IB)
A particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
positively charged ion
negatively charged ion
Give the group and period for the following elements:
a. helium - b. bromine -
c. calcium - d. copper -
a. group 18 period 1 b. group 17 period 4
c. group 2 period 4 d. group 11 period 4
Identify the number of valence electrons present in the following elements:
a. Radium b. Iodine c. Cesium
d. Aluminum e. vanadium
(a) 2 (b) 7 (c.) 1 (d) 3 (e) 5
Draw an electron dot structure for the following then predict the oxidation number or charge:
a. Nitrogen b. argon c. magnesium d. sodium
e. aluminum f. sulfur g. silicon h. fluorine
look to the packet for the answers
Which group is most likely to donate one electron
Which elements lose electrons.
-group 1-2,13. -group 15-17.
-They want to follow the octet rule.
Why do ions have a + or a - sign
it represents the lost or gained electrons, and the charge that the new presence/absence leaves the element with
How many electrons are lost or gained if an ion has the following charge:
a. +1 b. +2 c. +3 d. +4
e. -4 f. -3 g. -2 h. -1
a. 1 lost b. 2 lost c. 3 lost d. 4 lost
e. 4 gained f. 3 gained g. 2 gained h. 1 gained
What elements are stable
How many valence electrons are needed to be stable
What rule is this
Name the following ionic compounds:
a. CaBr2 b. KF c. Mn(OH)2
e. SnBr4 f. Na2CO3 g. Cu2O
(a) calcium bromide (b) potassium fluoride (c) manganese II hydroxide (d) (e) tin IV bromide (f) sodium carbonate (g) copper I oxide
Calculate molar mass for the following.
a. AlBr3 b. H2O2 c. Mg3(PO4)2
[a] 26.98 + (3x79.9) = 266.9
[b] (2x1.008) + (2x16) = 34.016
[c] (3x24.31) + (8x46.97) = 448.69
List 7 diatomic molecules
Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
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