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Chapter 9B

How did the lunar maria form?

Large impacts fractured the Moon's lithosphere, allowing lava to fill the impact basins.

Why does the Moon have a layer of powdery "soil" on its surface?

It's the result of gradual erosion by micrometeorites striking the Moon.

The Caloris Basin on Mercury covers a large region of the planet, but few smaller craters have formed on top of it. From this we conclude that

the Caloris Basin formed toward the end fo the solar system's period of heavy bombardment.

Why do we think Mercury has so many tremendous cliffs?

They were probably formed by tectonic stresses when the entire planet shrank as its core cooled.

Olympus Mons is a

shield volcano on Mars.

Valles Marineris is a

large canyon on Mars.

Which of the following does not provide evidence that Mars once had flowing water?

The presence of vast canals discovered in the late 1800s by Giovanni Schiaparelli and mapped by Percival Lowell.

The polar caps on Mars are composed of

mostly solid caron dioxide adn some water ice.

How have we been able to construct detailed maps of surface features on Venus?

by using radar from spacecraft that were sent to orbit Venus

Which two geological processes appear to have been most important in shaping the present surface of Venus?

volcanoes and tectonics

Which of the following show evidence of ancient river beds?


Spacecraft have landed on all the terrestrial worlds except


What process has shaped Earth's surface more than any other?

plate tectonics

Why are there fewer large craters on the seafloor than on the continents?

The seafloor crust is younger than the continental crust.

How does seafloor crust differ crom continental crust?

Seafloor crust is thinner, younger and higher in density.

Why is continental crust lower in density than seafloor crust?

Continental crust is made from remelted seafloor crust and therefore only the lower-density material rises to form it.

Which of the following is not evidence for plate tectonics on Earth?

existence of volcanoes

How fast do plates move on Earth?

a few centimeters per year

What drives the motion of the tectonic plates on Earth?

convection cells in the mantle

Mineral evidence shows that Earth's oceans have existed for

over four billion years.

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