58 terms

Psych 101 Final

During their lifetimes, approximately ______ of Americans will experience some type of mental disorder.
Know what global assessment of functioning is.(GAF)
The Global assessment of functioning is a test used in determining if a person has a psychological disorder. The higher the results, 100 being the highest, the more effective functioning the patient is considered. The lower, 0 being the lowest, the more severe disorders are indicated in the patient.
The diathesis-stress model explains disease as the result of:
both internal (biological and psychological) and external (environmental) causes.
This model suggests that a person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress. The diathesis is the internal predisposition, which could be genetic, and the stress is the external trigger.
example: people during 9/11 who showed a psychological disorder after the "trigger". The disorder was already in them, but it came out after the tragedy.
Human beings and monkeys have been shown to be instinctively primed to learn fears of certain things, such as of snakes and spiders. Which of the following theories supports this proposition?
The preparedness theory of phobias, which maintains that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears.. The preparedness theory, proposed by Martin E. P. Seligman (1971), is supported by research showing that both humans and monkeys can quickly be conditioned to have a fear response for stimuli such as snakes and spiders but not for neutral stimuli such as flowers or toy rabbits (Cook & Mineka, 1989; Öhman, Dimberg, & Ost, 1985).
Which brain structure has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder?
Researchers have not determined the biological mechanisms that may contribute to OCD (Friedlander & Desrocher, 2006), but one hypothesis implicates heightened neural activity in the caudate nucleus of the brain, a portion of the basal ganglia (discussed in Chapter 3) known to be involved in the initiation of intentional actions.
Know some of the symptoms associated with suicide
Talk about suicide:
About 90% of people who are suicidal discuss their intentions, so this obvious warning sign should not be dismissed as simply a means of getting attention. Although most people who threaten suicide do not actually attempt it, they are at greater risk than those who do not talk about it.
An upturn in mood following a prolonged depressive episode:
Surprisingly, suicide risk increases at this point. In fact, a sudden lifting of mood may reflect relief at the prospect that suicide will end the emotional suffering.
A failed love interest, romantic breakup, or loss of a loved one through separation or death.
A severe, stressful event that is especially shameful or humiliating.
A family history of suicide, especially of a parent.
Unusual reckless or risky behavior, seemingly carried out without thinking.
An unexplained decline in school or workplace performance.
Withdrawal from friends, family, and regular activities.
Expressing feelings of being trapped, as though there's "no way out."
"Cleaning house" by giving away prized possessions.
Increased alcohol or drug use:
Substance abuse is associated with approximately 25% to 50% of suicides and is especially associated with adolescent suicides (Conwell et al., 1996; Woods et al., 1997).
The primary reason why dissociative identity disorder replaced the term multiple personality disorder is that:
No longer called "multiple personality disorder" because the term implies that more than one person is in "residence," the disorder is now conceptualized as involving multiple patterns of thought and behavior, each of which is associated with a different identity.
Know the different subtypes of schizophrenia.
Peppy Chefs Drive Ugly Racecars
(Paranoid, Catatonic, Disorganized, Undifferentiated, Residual)
The avoidant personality type differs from the schizoid personality type in that:
Avoidant personality types yearn for social contact, while schizoid personality types do not want any social contact.
Know some of the barriers to seeking treatment for a mental disorder:
-People may not realize that their disorder needs to be treated:
Mental illness is often not taken nearly as seriously as physical illness, perhaps because the origin of mental illness is "hidden" and usually cannot be diagnosed by a blood test or x-ray. The stigma of mental illness often includes beliefs that mental problems can be solved by "mind over matter." In other words, some people believe that mental illness is a sign of personal weakness or that people suffering from mental illness are not trying hard enough to help themselves.
-There may be barriers to treatment, such as beliefs and circumstances that keep people from getting help:
Individuals may believe that they should be able to handle things themselves. In some cases, families discourage their loved ones from seeking help because the public acknowledgment of a psychological disorder may be seen as an embarrassment to the family. In other cases, there may be financial obstacles to getting treatment, such as lack of medical insurance that covers treatment for mental health disorders. Barriers may even arise from treatment providers or facilities themselves, including such factors as long waiting lists, lack of funding for adequate staffing, or lack of staff education about the most up-to-date treatments. Cultural and gender factors may also affect who seeks treatment and who does not. For example, one study of college students found that being male predicted negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help, suggesting that men may be less likely than women to seek psychological services (Komiya, Good, & Sherrod, 2000).
-Even people who acknowledge they have a problem may not know where to look for services:
Like finding a good lawyer or plumber, finding the right psychologist can be more difficult than simply flipping through the yellow pages or searching online. This confusion is understandable given the plethora of different types of treatments available (see the Real World box).
What did Sigmund Freud call a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material?
Know what Carl Jung meant by the collective unconscious:
The culturally determined symbols and myths that are shared among all people that, he argued, could serve as a basis for interpretation beyond sex or aggression.
Know what systematic desensitization is:
a procedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles of his or her body while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations. For example, someone with a phobia of snakes would imagine snakes and the therapist may put a rubber snake in the patients hand.
In their interactions with clients, person-centered therapists are encouraged to demonstrate three basic qualities; congruence, empathy, and unconditional positive regard, in order for growth to occur.
-Congruence refers to openness and honesty in the therapeutic relationship and ensuring that the therapist communicates the same message at all levels.
-Empathy refers to the continuous process of trying to understand the client by getting inside his or her way of thinking, feeling, and understanding the world.
-Finally, the therapist must treat the client with unconditional positive regard by providing a nonjudgmental, warm, and accepting environment in which the client can feel safe expressing his or her thoughts and feelings.
Know some of the advantages of group therapy:
1. One advantage is that groups provide a context in which clients can practice relating to others. People in group therapy have a "built-in" set of peers whom they have to talk to and get along with on a regular basis. This can be especially helpful for clients who are otherwise socially isolated.
2. Second, attending a group with others who have similar problems shows clients that they are not alone in their suffering.
3. Third, group members model appropriate behaviors for one another and share their insights about how to deal with their problems.
4. Fourth, group therapy is often just as effective as individual therapy (e.g., Jonsson & Hougaard, 2008), so, on average, whoever is paying for group therapy gets a bargain.
An ancient biological treatment for mental disorders, evidenced by holes in the skulls, was known as:
trepanning—drilling a hole in the skull perhaps in the belief that this would release evil spirits that were affecting the mind.
Atypical antipsychotics work on both the dopamine and the ________ systems.
Antidepressants are commonly used to treat not only depression, but also:
anxiety disorders and eating disorders
What treatment is sometimes used for severe depression when medication is not working?
+electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), more commonly known as "shock therapy," which is a treatment that involves inducing a mild seizure by delivering an electrical shock to the brain. -side effects: impairs short-term memory over a month or two. headaches, muscle aches
-This is used for SEVERE depression

+transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) a treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person's scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain. Fewer side-effects, mild headache and small risk for seizure, no impact on memory or concentration. (useful in treating depression that is unresponsive to medication.)

TMS is becoming more common because it is effective and has a lot fewer side effects.
Chapter 1
The behaviorism of John Watson has been described as:
In Pavlov's experiments, the sound of the tone was a stimulus—sensory input from the environment—that influenced the salivation of the dogs, which was a response—an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus. Watson and other behaviorists made these two notions the building blocks of their theories, which is why behaviorism is
sometimes called "stimulus-response" or "S-R" psychology.
Chapter 2
What is the best way to make it less likely that people will be influenced by demand characteristics?
One of the best ways to avoid demand characteristics is to keep the people who are being observed from knowing the true purpose of the observation. When people are "blind" to the purpose of an observation, they can't behave the way they think they should behave because they don't know how they should behave.
Chapter 3
The ___ is a brain structure that plays a role in the regulation of activation, arousal, and sleep.
reticular formation.
Inside the medulla is a small cluster of neurons called the reticular , which regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal.
Chapter 4
The binding problem of perception is concerned with how:
features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world rather than free-floating or mis combined features.
Chapter 5
The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body is known as the:
Mind/Body problem
Chapter 6
The most effective form of elaborative rehearsal appears to be linking new information to:
The results of these and many other studies have shown that long-term retention is greatly enhanced by elaborative encoding, which is the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.
Chapter 7
The "positive" in positive reinforcement and positive punishment means that:
Skinner used the term positive for situations in which a stimulus was presented and negative for situations in which it was removed. Consequently, there is positive reinforcement (where a rewarding stimulus is presented) and negative reinforcement (where an unpleasant stimlus is removed), as well as positive punishment (where an unpleasant stimulus is administered) and negative punishment (where a rewarding stimulus is removed). Here the words positive and negative mean, respectively, something that is added or something that is taken away, but do not mean "good" or "bad" as they do in everyday speech.
Chapter 9
The sentences "The dog chased the cat" and "The cat was chased by the dog" have ____same____ deep structure and ___different_____ surface structure.
Deep structure refers to the meaning of a sentence. Surface structure refers to how a sentence is worded. The sentences "The dog chased the cat" and "The cat was chased by the dog" mean the same thing (they have the same deep structure) even though on the surface their structures are different.
Chapter 10
A statistic that describes the proportion of the difference between people's scores that can be explained by differences in their genetic makeup is called:
heritability coefficient
Chapter 11
Marital satisfaction is lowest when?
For example, parents typically report lower marital satisfaction than do nonparents—and the more children they have, the less satisfaction they report (Twenge, Campbell, & Foster, 2003). Studies of marital satisfaction at different points in the life span reveal an interesting pattern of peaks and valleys: Marital satisfaction starts out high, plummets at about the time that the children are in diapers, begins to recover, plummets again when the children are in adolescence, and returns to its premarital levels only when children leave home

is this correct?? i know on learning curve it asked this Q and the answer was something like: when both parties do not feel they are getting and satisfaction/gain from the relationship?
Chapter 12
Susan loved her new baby brother, but sometimes she secretly wished she were still the only child in the family. Which defense mechanisms would she be using if she snuggled him a little too roughly?
Reaction formation is a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite.
A picture in the book shows a boy playfully choking his brother and calls it reaction formation.
Chapter 13
Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit is called: