How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

369 terms

AP Psychology Mid Term

STUDY
PLAY
flashbulb memory
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
encoding
processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning
storage
retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing
long-term memory
relatively permanant and limitedless storehouse of the memory system
working memory
newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequence
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention conscious effort
rehearsal
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding
encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
imagery
mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
mnemonics
memory aids; like vivid imagery
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
increase in synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
amnesia
loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
hippocampus
neural center that is located in limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
recall
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
recognition
measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
relearning
memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
priming
activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
deja vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
mood-congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
proactive interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
parallel processing
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, doing many things at once
maintenance rehearsal
The process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about a piece of information.
elaborative rehearsal
A memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over.
primacy effect
This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series.
declarative memory
It refers to memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and events.
procedural memory
A type of long-term memory of how to perform different actions and skills. Essentially, it is the memory of how to do certain things.
episodic memory
A category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences.
state dependent memory
Learning that takes place in one situation or "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar situation or state.
decay theory
The act of forgetting something as the memory fades with time
Herman Ebbinghaus
He was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve.
Elizabeth Loftus
She is an American psychologist and expert on human memory. She has conducted extensive research on the misinformation effect and the nature of false memories.
memory
the mental capacity or faculty of retaining and reviving facts, events, impressions, etc., or of recalling or recognizing previous experiences.
anterograde amnesia
inability to encode new memories from our experiences
decay theory
The idea that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.
declarative memory
The part of long-term memory where factual information is stored, such as mathematical formulas, vocabulary, and life events.
elaborative rehearsal
a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory
encoding specificity principle
The principle that when the conditions of information retrieval are similar to the conditions of information encoding, retrieval is more likely to be successful.
episodic memory
A category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences.
maintenance rehearsal
Repeating information over and over to keep it active in short-term memory
primacy effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
procedural memory
Category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations, and actions.
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier's forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby, injuring him
semantic memory
a subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including the meanings of words and concepts
state dependent memory
Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in the same physical and emotional state you were in when you encoded the information
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototype
a standard or typical example
algorithm
a precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem
heuristic
a commonsense rule (or set of rules) intended to increase the probability of solving some problem
insight
A cognitive form of learning involving the mental rearragnment or restructuring of the elements in a problem to achieve an understanding or the problem and arrive at a solution
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
overconfidence
total certainty or greater certainty than circumstances warrant
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
intuition
instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)
framing
formulation of the plans and important details
language
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
phoneme
(linguistics) one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
morpheme
minimal meaningful language unit
grammar
studies of the formation of basic linguistic units
semantics
the study of language meaning
syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Noam Chomsky
United States linguist whose theory of generative grammar redefined the field of linguistics (born 1928)
B.F Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that language development is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments
Benjamin Whorf
Concept of "liguistic determinism" or how language impacts thought
creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
REM sleep
rapid eye moment sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
sleep
periodic, natural loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
NREM sleep
non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
insomnia
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by a high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur
posthypnotic suggestions
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
addiction
compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences
depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce activity and slow body functions
barbiturates
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
opiates
opium and its derivatives, (such as morphine and heroin); they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up the body functions
amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
methamphetamine
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
ecstasy (MDMA)
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
hallucinogens
psychedlic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
LSD
a powerful hallucigenic drug; also known as acid
near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
THC
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
Sensation
process of sensory receptors receiving and representing a stimulus
App: seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, feeling touch
Perception
process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
App: recognizing the face of a friend
Bottom-up Processing
analysis beginning with sensory receptors and working up to the brains integration
App: detecting lines and colors in a photo
Top-Down Processing
analysis guided by the brains higher functions and experience
App: notice expressions in a photo
Selective Attention
focusing on a particular stimulus
App: listening to one voice in a crowded place
Inattentional Blindness
failing to notice objects because of distracted attention
App: failing to notice the gorilla (video)
Change Blindness
failing to notice environmental changes
App: failing to notice a change in the person one is giving instructions to (video)
Psychophysics
study of physical characteristics of stimuli and the way they are experienced
App: Psychophysicist studies the absolute thresholds for sounds for babies
Absolute Threshold
minimum stimulation needed for a stimulus to be detected 50 % of the time
App: hearing test done where a specialists exposes you to sounds and tests at which tone you could detect the sound half of the time
Signal Detection Theory
theory predicting how and when we detect a stimulus amid background stimulation
App: parents of a newborn are more likely to detect faint whimpers than louder, unimportant sounds
Subliminal
below one's absolute thershold for conscious awareness
App: hearing a masked message "I am thin" helps people lose weight
Priming
activation of associations that predisposes one's perception
App: flashing a picture of a kitten resulted in people responding more nicely than if they were flashed a picture of a werewolf
Difference Threshold
minimum difference between two stimuli required to be detected 50% of the time
App: will notice when 1 oz of water is added to 10 oz, but not if 1 oz is added to 100 oz
Weber's Law
principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage
App: two lights must difference by an intensity of 8 percent for the average person to notice the change
Sensory Adaptation
diminished sensitivity due to constant stimulation
App: don't notice a watch that you put on at the beginning of the day
Transduction
conversion of energy forms. In sensation transforms stimulus energies into neural impulses
App: eye transforms light energy into neuralimpulses
Wavelength
distance from peak to peak of light or sound waves
App: short wavelengths show a blue color
Hue
color determined by wavelength of light
App: red shades show from long wavelenghts
Intensity
amount of energy in light or sound waves
App: bright of pastel blue
Pupil
opening in the center of the eye
Iris
ring of muscil around the pupil that controls the opening size
Lens
transparent structure behind pupil, changes shape for focusing
Retina
light-sensative inner surface of eye, starts visual information processing
Accommodation
process of eye lens changing shape to focus
App: curvature is changed so that a person 100 yards away is in focus
Rods
retianl receptors that detect gray scale, function in dark
Cones
retinal receptors that are near the center and function in well lite conditions
Optic Nerve
nerve that carries impulses from eye to brain
Blind Spot
point where the optic nerve leaves the eye
App: when i close one eye, my brain fills in the hole of my blind spot
Fovea
central focal point in the retinal
Feature Detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of stimulus
App: an area in the temporal lobe enables us to perceive faces
Parallel Processing
processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously
App: color, movement, form, and depth of a bird are processed at the same time allowing us to recognize the animal
Young-Helmholtz Trichomatic Theory
theory that retinal contains receptors for three colors which produce perception of any color when stimulus are combined
App: we see yellow when both red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones or stimulated
Opponent-Process Theory
threory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision
App: color blind people can't distinguish between green and red since they are preceived by the same receptor
Audition
sense or act of hearing
App: hearing the screech of tires
Frequency
number of complete wavelenghts in a given time
App: low frequency means long wavelenghts and low pitch
Pitch
high or low tones depending on frequency
App: low pitch cello comes from sounds with a low frequency and long waves
Middle Ear
chamber between eardrum and cochela with three tiny bones that concentrat the vibrations of the ear drum
Cochlea
coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube that triggers nerve impulses from sound waves
Inner Ear
innermost part of the ear with the cochlea, semicirular canals, and vestibular sacs
Place Theory
threory that links pitch heard with the place of stimulation in the cochela's membrane
App: sharp, high pitched shout is heard if cochela's membranes is stimulated near its beginning
Frequency Theory
theory that rate of nerve impulses travling up auditory nerve matches the freqency of a tone
App: sharp, high pitched shout (say with a freqency of 600 waves per second) is heard when 600 pulses per second travel up the auditory nerve
Conduction Hearing Loss
hearing loss due to damage of mechanical system that conducts sound waves
App: become deaf if eardrum is punctured
Sensorinerual Hearing Loss
hearing loss due to damage in the cochleas's receptor cells of the auditory nerve
App: prolonged exposue to ear-splitting noise causes deafness
Cochlear Implant
device for covering sounds inter electrical signals and stimulation auditory nerve
App: implant helps deaf preschool convey auditory information to the brain so he becomes proficient in oral communication
Kinesthesis
system for sensing position and movement of body parts
App: still know where you hand is placed even if your eyes are closed
Vestibular Sense
sense of head and body movement and position
App: vestibular sense allows for me to balance on a stool
Gate-Control Theory
theory that the spinal cord contains a "gate" that controls pain signals
App: stubbing your toe activates small nerve fibers with open the "gates" and allow pain, rubbing the toe creates ad competing stimulation and blocks some of the pain messages
Sensory Interaction
principle that one sense influences another
App: smell, texture, and taste becomes a flavor
Gestalt
an organized whole, Gestalt psychologist emphasize the integration pieces of information into meaningful wholes
App: optical illusion of blue dots looking like a cube (in book)
Figure-Ground
organization of visual filed into objects and their surroundings
App: optical illusion of running men and arrows (in book)
Grouping
perceptual tendency to organize stimulu into groups
App: we see three sets of two lines, not six seperate lines when spaced in a pattern
Depth Perception
ability to see objects in three dimensions
App: my depth perception tells me I have enough time to turn because the oncoming car is far enough away
Visual Cliff
laboratory device for testing depth perception of infants
App: infants placed on a glass table will not cross to their mothers since they can tell that the patterened surface is far down
Binocular Cues
depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes
App: difficult to touch two pencils together with only one eye open
Retinal Disparity
binocular cue for perceiving depth that that compares images from retinas in two eyes
App: unless you look cross eyed, you will see a floating finger in the floating finger sausage test
monocular Cues
depth cues available to either eye alone
App: able to tell if someone is 10 or 100 meters away
Phi Phenomenon
illusion of movement created when lights are blinked
App: a succession of blinking holiday lights makes us perceive a single light in motion
Perceptual Constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
App: can recognize a person regardless of angle, distance, and illumination
Color Constancy
perceiving objects as having a consistent color even if illumination alters
App: blue in indoor lighting and gold in outdoor lighting have the same wavelengths but we can differenciate
Perceptual Adaptation
ability to adjust to an artificially displaces or inverted visual field
App: adjust to new glasses in a day or two
Perceptual Set
mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
App: young or old woman optical illusion
Extrasenroy Perception
claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input
App: claim to read someone's mind (telepathy)
Parapsychology
study of paranormal phenomena
App: scientist studies a persons ability to see the future
Amplitude
Height of wave, related to the loudness of a sound
Basilar Membrane
Flexible membrane in the cochlea
The wavelike movement of this structure in response to sound stimulates the receptor cells for hearing
Cochlea
Location of the transduction of sound waves into neural impulses
Semicircular Canals
Three small semicircular tubes in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear
Involved in sensing rotational motion and head position
Retina
Layer of light-sensitive cells connected to the brain via the optic nerve that can detect images
Cornea
Tough, clear covering that helps protect the eye. Light bends as it passes through the cornea
Pupil
Hole that lets light into the inner eye
Aqueous Humor
Clear fluid that helps the cornea keep its rounded shape
Iris
Muscle that controls how much light enters the eye
Lens
Clear, flexible structure that makes an image on the eye's retina. Flexible so that it can change shape, focusing on objects that are close up and objects that are far away
Vitreous Humor
Thick, clear jelly that helps give the eyeball its shape
Sclera
Thick, tough, white outer covering of the eyeball
Blind Spot
No light-sensitive cells, where the optic nerve leaves the retina
Optic Nerve
Bundle of nerve fibers that carry information from the retina to the brain
Tapetum
Colorful, shiny material located behind the retina. Reflects light back through the retina
Brainstem
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
Midbrain
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe
Medulla
lower or hindmost part of the brain, the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Pons
a brain structure located at the top of the brain stem that is involved in respiration, movement, and sleep
Reticular Formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Limbic System
neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
Amygdala
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Spinal Cord
cord of nerve tissue that conducts messages between the brain and the peripheral nerves
Hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
Hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Pituitary Gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Corpus Callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Cerebral Cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Frontal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Parietal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Occipital Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
Temporal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
Motor Cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Sensory Cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Association Areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Acetylcholine
Enables muscle action, learning, and memory
Dopamine
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Norepinephrine
Helps control alertness and arousal
GABA
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter
Glutamate
A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
Agonist
Mimics neurotransmitter and excites the neuron
Morphine
Antagonist
Blocks neurotransmitter, inhibits the neuron from receiving neurotransmitters
Sympathetic Nervous System
Arousing
Parasympathetic
Calming
Neural Networks
Work groups, clusters of neurons
Adrenal Gland
Fight or Flight
Fissures
Folds
Aphasia
inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
Plasticity
The brain's ability to modify itself after some types of damage
Neurogenesis
Formation of new neurons
Dual Processing
Information is simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Parallel Processing
simultaneous processing by two or more processing units
Serial Processing
A type of cognitive processing in which only one item is handled at a given time, and one step must be completed before proceeding to the next step.
Angular Gyrus
Transforms visual representations into an auditory code
Wernicke's Area
Interprets auditory code
Broca's Area
Controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
Empiricism
Definition: The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
Example: According to empiricism, knowledge is based off of experiences, and not intuition
Structuralism
Definition: The view that using self-reflective introspective, one can understand the elements of their experience
Example: Early psychologists using the idea of structuralism to have people explain elements of their reaction to sensual items
Functionalist
Definition: A person who encourages the explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness
Example: A functionalist believes that our senses formed so we could adapt to survive
Experimental Psychologists
Definition: Psychologists who explore behavior and thinking with experiments
Example: Experimental psychologists conduct experiments on subjects in order to understand basic psychological processes
Behaviorists
Definition: Scientists who explore the behaviors of subjects in response to environmental stimuli
Example: A behaviorist will take time to understand how certain environments trigger certain reactions from people
Humanistic Psychology
Definition: Emphasizes the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied
Example: Humanistic Psychologists attempt to learn how we fulfill our need for love and acceptance
Cognitive Neuroscience
Definition: The study of brain activity linked with mental activity
Example: A cognitive neuroscientist researches how stored data in the brain is transferred and utilized cognitively
Psychology
Definition: The science of behavior and mental processes
Example: A person who studies psychology studies the science of what someone does and the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior
Nature-nurture issue
Definition: The controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience
Example: A person who debates this issue wonders whether human traits are hereditary or come from experience
Natural Selection
Definition: From among chance variations, nature selects the traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Example: According to natural selection, in a population of a certain organism, the one most suited to survive proliferates its genome
Levels of analysis
Definition: Differing complementary views for different phenomenon
Example: One can look at why someone does something from sociological or biological view
Bio-psychosocial Approach
Definition: An approach that considers the influences of biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors
Example: A psychologist takes a bio-psychological approach when presented with a depressed patient due to the numerous possibilities of the cause
Biological Psychology
Definition:A psychology in which one studies the connections between the biology of a patient and their behavior
Example: One may examine the health and makeup of a patient's brain in this approach
Evolutionary Psychology
Definition: A psychology in which one studies the connections between behavior and mental processes and natural selection millions of years ago
Example: One may see that anger allowed for better survival of our ancestors
Psycho-dynamic Psychology
Definition: A psychology in which one studies the connections between unconscious drives and conflicts and their behavior
Example: An unconscious conflict may cause someone to constantly feel anxious in situations without a conscious understanding as to why
Behavioral Psychology
Definition: A psychology in which one studies behavior via a method of learning
Example: One may try to understand why a cramp corridor would cause an behavioral response
Cognitive Psychology
Definition: A psychological in which one studies the cognitive processes in our brain, such as thinking, knowing, and communicating
Example: From a cognitive perspective, one could view happiness as an effect on our thinking processes
Social-Cultural Psychology
Definition: A psychology in which one studies the connections between behavior responses and environments and cultures
Example: A person could have an attitude due to their culture
Psycho-metrics
Definition: Psychology devoted to studying the measurement of our abilities, attitudes, and traits
Example: A psychologist under this discipline will attempt to understand how one measures how well we perform in different scenarios
Basic Research
Definition: Research to build upon psychology's knowledge base
Example: Some basic research includes experiments on how we respond in social situations
Developmental Psychologists
Definition: Psychologists who study our cognitive abilities from birth to death
Example: They examine how a baby thinks, and an elderly person thinks
Educational Psychologists
Definition: Psychologists who study the influences on teaching and learning
Example: One may examine how our thought process and memory retentions affects our learning ability
Social Psychologists
Definition: Psychologists who study how we view and affect one another
Example: These psychologists may simply view relationships
Applied Research
Definition: Research that attempts to solve practical problems
Example: Such research may include Alzheimers research
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists
Definition: Psychologists who study psychology in order to enhance work environments
Example: These psychologists will try to see if they can find the best workforce to produce the best and efficient work
Human Factors Psychologists
Definition: Psychologists who study the interactions of humans and machines in a work environment for a better efficiency
Example: These psychologists may recommend designs and programming for machines to better help humans adapt
Counseling Psychologists
Definition: Psychologists who help people in their lives, whether it be marital issues or achieving a better well being
Example: Some psychologists are devoted to just marital counseling in order to improve those relationships
Clinical Psychologists
Definition: Psychologists who asses, treat, and anticipate patients with psychological disorders
Example: Many of these psychologists work in mental institutions, helping patients possibly work out their issues and get back into the world outside the hospital
Psychiatrists
Definition: Medical Doctors who deal with psychological disorders, able to utilize medical treatments
Example: Psychiatrists can prescribe medicine for people with ADHD in order to help them focus
Critical Thinking
Definition: Thinking that takes extensive measures to examine situations/ideas/people/items rather than accept evidence easily
Example: Rather than accept everything on the news, one who utilizes critical thinking can pick out the unbiased pieces of information
Theory
Definition: An explanation that utilizes principles to predict behaviors or events
Example: Several different principles can allow one to theorize why someone may act in a certain way
Hypothesis
Definition: A proposal of an explanation of an event that can be proven or dis-proven
Example: Scientists use hypotheses to help formulate theories of events.
Descartes
Believed that the physical world is not under divine influence but rather follows a set of observable laws or rules. Reflexes are not controlled by the mind. Separation, but interaction of the mind and the body
Locke
Humans are born with a blank slate
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Nurture over nature
Hobbes
The idea of a soul, spirit, or mind is ridiculous
Materialism
Wundt
Founder of the science of psychology
Structuralism/Introspection
Titchener
Student of Wundt
Brought psychology to America
Structuralism/Introspection
James
Functionalism
Influenced by Darwin
Principles of Psychology
Behavioral Genetics
Emphasizes that particular behaviors are attributed to particular, genetically-based psychological characteristics
Correlational Research
Assessing the degree of association between two or more variables or characteristics of interest that occur naturally
Case Study
Intensive psychological studies of a single individual
Cross-sectional Study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Longitudinal Study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
Conceptual Definition
the theory or issue being studied
Operational Definition
How a theory or issue will be directly observed or measured in the study
Descriptive Statistics
Statistics that are used to organize and summarize data.
Inferential Statistics
statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions
Negative skew
to the right
Positive skew
to the left
Correlation coefficient
A numerical value that indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between two variables
+1 to -1
Pearson correlation coefficient
A descriptive statistic that describes the linear relationship between two attributes
Applied Psychology
any of several branches of psychology that seek to apply psychological principles to practical problems of education or industry or marketing etc.
Basic Psychology
the study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application
4 major ethics
Full consent
Protect from harm or discomfort
Debriefing if deception is involved
Confidentiality
Survey
Looks at many cases in less depth
Illusory Correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
Stanley G. Hall
Focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory
First president of APS
Psychologist who is a behaviorist
Watson and Skinner
Behavioral Perspective
School of thought that deals with only behaviors that can be observed
Applied Psychologist
Industrial/Organizational Psychologist
Basic Research Psychologist
Biological Psychologist
Advantage to an experiment
Can control the variables and random assignment and it can also shows cause and effect which is different to correlation
A survey requires random sample, where...
an experiment requires random assignment
False-consensus effect
Overestimating how much people agree/think like you would
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
habituation
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
behaviorism
the view that psychology: (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioned, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
acquisition
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
higher-order conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. (For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone.) (Also called Second-Order Conditioning)
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when a unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant condition when a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit responses
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished followed by a punisher
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by faborable consequences become more like, that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforce; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
discriminative stimulus
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)
reinforce
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforce in any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforce is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (negative reinforcement is not punishment)
primary reinforce
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce; also known as a secondary reinforce
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. (For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it)
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
observational learning
learning by observing others (also social learning)
modeling
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation and empath
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
little albert
subject in John Watson's experiment, proved classical conditioning principles, especially the generalization of fear
Albert Bandura
researcher famous for work in observational or social learning including the famous Bobo doll experiment
John Garcia
Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance.
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936)
Rosalie Rayner
graduate student of Watson and co-researcher for the famous Little Albert demonstration of classically conditioned emotion
Martin Seligman
researcher known for work on learned helplessness and learned optimism as well as positive psychology
B.F. Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
Edward Thorndike
Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in intstrumental learning such as the law of effect. Known for his work with cats in puzzle boxes.
John Watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
biofedback
Biofeedback is a technique that trains people to improve their health by controlling certain bodily processes that normally happen involuntarily, such as heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and skin temperature.
observational learning
learning by observing others
aversion theory
Aversion therapy is a form of behavior therapy in which an aversive (causing a strong feeling of dislike or disgust) stimulus is paired with an undesirable behavior in order to reduce or eliminate that behavior.