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Receptors Unit 4
Terms in this set (59)
Incoming sensory information from external surface of the body enters the CNS via receptors dealing with...
exteroceptive and proprioceptive input
Receptors dealing with the sensory senses are
vestibular, auditory, visual, olfactory, and gustatory
Four modalities of cutaneous sensation
touch, press, temperature, and pain
Proprioceptors deal with
force, rate, velocity, and rage of movement
two types of proprioceptors
conscious and unconscious
Where are the proprioceptors located?
joint capsule, tendons, periosteum, and ligaments
What are the proprioceptors responsible for?
out kinesthetic awareness
our ability to consciously perceive movements in terms of force, rate, direction, and range, including our position sense
small receptive pool from 1st to 2nd to 3rd level neurons
large receptive pool from 1st to 2nd to 3rd level neurons
specific receptors for touch are
meissner corpuscles and merkels disc
less specific receptor for touch is
free nerve endings
a receptor that is protective in nature for touch is
hair end organs
fast adapting, fine tactile discrimination (deal with low frequency vibration), precise location, low threshold
What does a low threshold mean?
put the information right back into the system
slow adapting, fine tactile discrimination, precise location, high threshold
What does a high threshold mean?
need an extended length stimulus and take over after the miessner
free nerve endings (touch)
slow adapting and have the ability to identify and locate a stimulus but are not as good and miessner and merkels
hair end organs (touch)
fast adapting, low threshold (they warn you when something is going to come into contact with your body)
The three receptors for pressure are?
pacinian corpuscles, ruffini end organs, and free nerve endings
the specific receptors for pressure are
pacinian corpuscles and ruffini end organs
Out of the specific receptors for pressure which is slow adapting and which is fast adapting?
pacinian corpuscles are fast adapting
ruffini end organs are slow adapting
For pressure, what does conscious proprioception mean?
That the receptors are located in and around the joint area
For pressure, what does exteroceptors mean?
That the receptors are located in deep connective tissue in fascia - but they also allow for proprioception of muscular tension.
free nerve endings (pressure)
The receptors for pain and temp are?
A delta and C fibers
Which receptors for pain and temp are specific? And what type of pain and temp do they deal with?
A delta (fast adapting) and they deal with sharp, localized pain and sharp localized sensation of warm and cold
Which receptors for pain and temp are less specific? And what type of pain and temp do they deal with?
C fibers (slow adapting) and they diffuse sensation of pain and temp
Conscious proprioceptors for force are?
pacinian corpuscles, ruffini end organs, golgi massoni, golgi type endingd
What makes pacinian corpuscles and ruffini end organs different from the other two?
They are located in deep connective tissue and fascia and are facilitated by:
externally - by pressure being put on that part of the body (exteroceptive)
internally -by muscles where they lie and provide info on muscle tension (propriocpetve)
Conscious proprioceptors for rate are?Which are fast adapting and which are slow adapting?
golgi massoni (fast) and ruffini end organ (slow)
Conscious proprioceptors for direction are?Which are fast adapting and which are slow adapting?
pacinian corpuscles (fast) and ruffini end organs (slow)
Conscious proprioceptors for range are?Which are fast adapting and which are slow adapting?
pacinian corpuscles (fast) and golgi type endings (slow)
Where are the conscious proprioceptors for rate, direction, and rage located?
in or around the joint area
where are unconscious proprioceptors found?
in the skeletal muscle
Why are they considered unconscious?
Because the information is not received directly by the higher cortical centers of cerebrum but it does reach it indirectly
What does a muscles spindle consist of?
a connective tissue capsule that encloses a nuclear bag and numerous nuclear chain fibers
Anatomy of a nuclear bag and chain fiber
have a central equatorial region which is non contractile and polar regions on either end which are contractile containing intrfusal muscle fibers
What is extrafusal fiber?
muscle spindle is attaches to and aligned parallel to skeletal muscle so when a muscle is stretched so is the spindle
Nuclear Bag Fibers
phasic and tonic. Respond to rate of change and amount of change
Fibers the Nuclear Bag is attached to
anulospiral endings and conveyed via A-alpha or 1A fibers
Nuclear Chain Fibers
tonic and repsond to sustained stretch
Fibers the Nuclear Chain is attached to
anulospiral endings and conveyed via A-alpha or 1A fibers, and flower spread endings which are conveyed via A-Beta or type II fibers
Where are annulospiral endings located
around the equatorial region
Where are flower spray endings located
Gamma Static Efferent
finely myelinated and innervate the polar region of both bag and chain. Provide static sensitivity to both bag and chain IA fibers, and type II afferents on nuclear chain to respond to muscle length
Gamma Dynamic Efferent
innervate polar region of bag only. Provide dynamic sensitivity to the nuclear bag IA fibers to respond to speed of change.
Is nuclear bag phasic or static?
Both. The bag deals with speed of contraction (phasic) and statically deals with the length of the muscle. The bag is only static during rest.
Is nuclear chain phasic or static?
Rate (bag or chain)
Range (bag or chain)
Resting length (bag or chain)
Golgi Tendon Organ
lie within muscle tendons in series with surrounding muscle fibers immediately beyond the tendon. Send afferent info through A-Alphs or IB fibers.
High Threshold GTO
responds to muscle lengthening in distal attachments
Low Threshold GTO
responds to muscle contraction in proximal attachments
located in labyrinths of the inner ear. Concerned with balance and equilibrium
What supplies the neural connections to vestibular receptors?
The large myelinated eighth cranial nerve
Phasic Receptos (vestibualr)
the semicircular canals respond to movements of head, especial rotator motions - allow us to maintain an erect position agains gravity
Static Receptors (vestibular)
the utricle and saccule contain maculae which allow us to to keep our head up in space
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