Classical conditioning associates ___ stimuli with stimuli that trigger responses that are ___. Thus, in this form of conditioning, the organism (Does/Doesn't) control the responses.
conditioned; uncontrolled; doesn't
In contrast, behavior that is more spontaneous and that is influenced by its consequences is called ___ behavior.
B.F. Skinner used Thorndike's __ __ __ as a starting point in developing a behavioral technology. This principle states that __ behavior is likely to __.
Law of effect; rewarded; recor (repeat)
Skinner designed an apparatus, called the ___ ___ (__ __), to investigate learning in animals.
operant chamber (Skinner box)
The procedure in which a person teaches an animal to perform an intricate behavior by building up to it in small steps is called ___. This method involves reinforcing successive ___ of the desired behavior.
In experiments to determine what an animal can perceive, researchers have found that animals are capable of forming ___ and ___ between stimuli. Similar experiments have been conducted with babies, who also can't verbalize their responses.
A situation, event, or signal that a certain response will be reinforced is a ___ ___.
A stimulus that strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response is a ___ ___.
A stimulus that strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is a ___ ___.
Reinforcers, such as food and shock, that are related to basic needs and therefore do not rely on learning are called ___ ___. Reinforcers that must be conditioned and therefore derive their power through association are called ___ ___.
primary reinforcers; conditioned reinforcers
Children who are able to delay gratification tend to become (more/less) socially competent and high achieving as they mature
Immediate reinforcement (is/isn't) more effective than its alternative, __ reinforcement. This explains in part the difficulty that gamblers have in quitting playing the slot machines.
The procedure involving reinforcement of each and every response is called ___ ___. Under these conditions, learning is ___. When this type of reinforcement is discontinued, extinction is ___.
continuous reinforcement; rapid; rapid
The procedure in which responses are reinforced only part of the the time is called ___ reinforcement. Under these conditions, learning is generally ___ than it is with continuous reinforcement. Behavior reinforced in this manner is (very/not very) resistant to extinction.
partial (intermittent); slower; very
When behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses, a ___-___ schedule is in effect.
Three-year-old Yusef knows that if he cries when he want a treat, his mother will sometimes give in. When, as in this case, reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable number of responses, a ___-___ schedule is being used.
Reinforcement of the first response after a set interval of time defines the ___-___ schedule. An example(s) of this schedule is _________.
fixed-interval; baking, cooking, checking for mail at delivery time
When the first response after varying amounts of time is reinforced, a ___-___ schedule is in effect.
An aversive consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior that preceded it is called ___. If an aversive stimulus is administered, it is called ___ ___. If a desirable stimulus is withdrawn, it is called ___ ___.
punishment; positive punishment; negative punishment
Because punished behavior is merely ___, it may reappear. Also, punishment teaches ___, that behavior that is unacceptable in one context may be acceptable in another.
Punishment can also lead to ___ and a sense of helplessness, as well as to the association of the aversive event with ___.
fear; the person (and place) who administered it
Punishment also often increases ___ and does not guide the individual toward more desirable behavior.
Skinner and other behaviorists resisted the growing belief that expectations, perceptions, and other ___ processes have a valid place in the science of psychology.
When a well-learned route in a maze is blocked, rats sometimes choose an alternative route, acting as if they were consulting a ___ ___. During their explorations, the rats may have experienced ___ ___ , learning that becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it.
cognitive map; latent learning
Some learning occurs after little or no interaction with our environment. Our sudden solution to a problem may reflect a flash of ___.
Excessive rewards may undermine ___ ___, which is the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. The motivation to seek external rewards and avoid punishment is called ___ ___.
intrinistic motivation; extrinistic motivation
For instance, with animals it is difficult to use food as a ___ to ___ behaviors that are not naturally associated with ___.
reinforcer; shape; food
Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally ___. When animals revert to their biologically predisposed patterns, they are exhibiting what is called ___ ___.
adaptive; instinctive drifts
Skinner's views were controversial because he insisted that ___ influences, rather than ___ ___ and ___, shape behavior.
external; internal thoughts; feelings
Skinner also advocated the use of ___ principles to influence people in ways that promote more desirable ___.
Skinner's critics argued that he ___ people by neglecting their personal ___ and by seeking to ___ their actions.
dehumanized; freedom; control
The use of teaching machines and programmed textbooks was an early application of the operant conditioning procedure of ___ to education. Online ___ systems, software that is ___, and ___-based learning are newer examples of this application of operant principles. Reinforcement principles can also be used to enhance ___ abilities by shaping successive approximations of new skills.
shaping; testing; interactive; web; athletic
In boosting productivity in the workplace, positive reinforcement is (more/less) effective when applied to specific behaviors than when given to reward general merit and when the desired performance is well defined and ___. For such behaviors immediate reinforcement is (more/no more) effective than delayed reinforcement.
more; achievable; more
In using operant conditioning to change your own behavior, you would follow these four steps 1. _____ 2. _______ 3. ______ 4. ______
state your goal; monitor how often you engage in desired behavior; reinforce desired behavior; reduce rewards gradually
A system for recording a physiological response and providing information concerning it is called ___. The instrument used in this system was supposed to provide the individual with a means of ___ a particular physiological response, but it seems to work best on ___ ___.
biofeedback; controlling; tension headaches
Both types of conditioning involve similar processes of ___, ___, ___ ___, ___, and ___.
acquisition; extinction; spontaneous recovery; generalization; discrimination
Classical and operant conditioning are both subject to the influences of ___ processes and ___ predispositions.
Through classical conditioning, an organism associates different ____ that it doesn't ___ and responds ___.
stimuli; control; automatically