A plant with yellow flowers was crossed with a plant with red flowers. All of the numerous offspring had red flowers. What does this show about the genotype of the parental plant with yellow flowers?
It is homozygous recessive
A woman who can roll her tongue (presumably dominant) is married to a man who cannot. Two of their four children can roll their tongues and two cannot. What is the genotype of the parents?
Woman Aa, man aa
Assume freckles and dimples are dominant traits. Two individuals with freckles and dimples have a child with no freckles and no dimples. What are the genotypes of the parents?
Ff Dd x Ff Dd
Both parents are heterozygous for the autosomal recessive Tay-Sachs disease. If three children in a row were born with Tay-Sachs disease, what are the chances that the next child will have Tay-Sachs disease?
If you were studying the phenomena of one gene having more than one effect, you would be studying which of the following?
If your mother is homozygous recessive and your father is heterozygous for the autosomal dominant Huntington disease, what are your chances of escaping the disease?
In a recessive disorder, individuals who have that recessive allele but not the disorder are referred to as:
In guinea pigs, B = black, b = brown, S = short hair, s = long hair. What would be the expected results if a BbSs mated with a BbSs?
9 black short hair, 3 black long hair, 3 brown short hair, 1 brown long hair
In humans, brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue eyes (b). A brown-eyed woman who has a blue-eyed child would have the genotype:
In humans, brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue eyes (b). If a homozygous brown-eyed woman mates with a homozygous blue-eyed man, what would be the chances of producing a blue-eyed child?
Individuals who are heterozygous for the sickle-cell disease have an increased resistance to the protozoan which causes malaria.
The four o'clock flower is an example of incomplete dominance. R = red, r = white, and Rr = pink. If two hybrids are crossed, what are the chances that an offspring will have pink flowers?
This figure shows a human pedigree. Based on the information presented in this figure, what type of disorder would this be?
When two different dominant alleles are both fully expressed in the phenotype, it is referred to as:
During DNA replication, which enzyme is responsible for unzipping and unwinding the original molecule of DNA?
In semiconservative DNA replication, each new double helix formed will have:
One new strand and one old strand in each helix
The scientists credited with the discovery of the helix structure of DNA and later won the Nobel Prize are:
Watson and Crick
Which of the following best describes the chemical composition of a nucleotide?
A nitrogen-containing base, a phosphate, and a pentose sugar
Which of the following nitrogenous bases are correctly paired in DNA?
rRNA is joined with various proteins to form _____.
structures known as ribosomes needed for translation
Each sequence of three bases on an mRNA molecule codes for_______which is brought to the mRNA by______.
a specific amino acid, a tRNA molecule carrying the exact amino acid needed
RNA allows DNA, which remains in the nucleus, to _____.
direct the production of polypeptides in the cytoplasm
Nucleotide -5 Carbon Sugar(Deoxyribose), Phosphate Group(P&O), Nitrogen Base
Deoxyribose and P&O make up the backbone of DNA ladder
DNA is a Seminconservative Molecule that can copy itself during what phase of the Cell Cycle?
Single Strand, can leave Nucleus (found) floating freely in the Cytoplasm, A-U(Uracil 25%) & C-G, Ribose
_________ happens in the nucleus and ________ occurs in the cytoplasm at the Ribosome.
________ codon are paired with complimentary _______ anticodon which carry _______ ________.
mRNA; tRNA; Amino Acids
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule.
The building block of a nucleic acids (DNA & RNA), consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic formation in a double-helix; can replicate or reproduce itself; made of genes
ribonucleic acid; manufacture specific forms of proteins using DNA as a template; three forms: rRNA, mRNA, tRNA
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
The process of reading a strand of mRNA to synthesize protein. Protein translation takes place on a ribosome.
studied the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants (known as the father of genetics)
Particulate Theory of Inheritance
Traits are inherited as "particles,"(genes) offspring receive a "particle" from each parent
Law of Segregation
Mendelian principle explaining that because each plant has two different alleles, it can produce two different types of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametes randomly pair to produce four combination of alleles
Law of Independent Assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
cross of two different traits in which the parents are heterozygous for both traits. Results in a 9:3:3:1 phenotype ratio
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
When a heterozygous individual is crossed with one that is homozygous recessive, the results are always a 1:1 phenotype ratio;
When an individual is heterozygous for two traits is crossed with one that is recessive for the traits, the offspring have a 1:1:1:1 phenotypic ratio;
the theory of natural selection
genetically based characteristics that enhance an animal's ability to survive, and therefore reproduce, will be passed on to future generations
The 22 pairs of chromosomes that are responsible for characteristics other than determination of sex.
family trees that show the occurrence of inherited phenotypes in several generations of related individuals
A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele for a dysfunctional enzyme, leading to accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth, followed by death within a few years.
A human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated
Genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing...PKU