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Biology Keystone Unit 5 Vocabulary
These vocabulary terms are used in Unit 5 - Cell Growth and Reproduction.
Terms in this set (16)
deoxyribonucelic acid (DNA)
A biological macromolecule that encodes the genetic information for living organisms and is capable of self-replication and the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA).
A sequence of nucleotides composing a segment of DNA that provides a blueprint for a specific hereditary trait
A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in linear forms in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and circular forms in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells; contains genes that encode traits. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.
A variation of a gene's nucleotide sequence (an alternative form of a gene).
The process in which genetic material is passed from parents to their offspring.
The series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. The main phases of the cell cycle are interphase, nuclear division, and cytokinesis.
A two-phase nuclear division that results in the eventual production of gametes with half the normal number of chromosomes
A nuclear division resulting in the production of two somatic cells having the same genetic complement as the original cell
The process in which DNA makes a duplicate copy of itself
The process in which the DNA molecule uncoils and separates into two strands. Each original strand becomes a template on which a new strand is constructed, resulting in two DNA molecules identical to the original DNA molecule
The longest-lasting phase of the cell cycle in which a cell performs the majority of its functions, such as preparing for nuclear division and cytokinesis
An exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis; contributes to the genetic variability in gametes and ultimately in offspring
The final phase of a cell cycle resulting in the division of the cytoplasm
A specialized cell (egg or sperm) used in sexual reproduction containing half the normal number of chromosomes of a somatic cell
Type of reproduction involving two different gametes (i.e., sperm and egg)
Type of reproduction that does not involve gametes; offspring are clones of parents
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