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81 terms

nutrition

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Water constitutes for what percent of body weight?
50-70%
The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is?
milk and dairy products.
Trace mineral
A mineral vital to health and is required in the diet in amounts less than or equal to 100 milligrams per day
Bone mineral density?
Total mineral content of bone at a specific bone site divided by the width of the bone at that site
Goiter
An enlargement of the thyroid gland; often caused by insufficient iodide intake
Hemoglobin
The iron-containing part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen to cells and some carbon dioxide away from cells
Electrolytes
Substances that break down into ions in water and, in turn, are able to conduct an electrical current
Major mineral
Mineral required in the diet in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day
Heme iron
Iron provided from animal tissues
Bone mass
Total mineral substance in a cross section of bone
Myoglobin
Iron-containing compound that binds oxygen in muscle tissue.
In some cultures, pots and pans used in cooking may contribute some what to the diet?
Iron
The mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
phosphorus
Which of the following is the best copper source?
Beef liver
The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by what?
Ion concentration
People who eat large amounts of seaweed can consume toxic levels of which trace mineral?
Iodide
Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via
Evaporation
The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by
absorption in the small intestine.
Which of the following is true about selenium?
It acts as an antioxidant
In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in
bones and teeth
The typical American diet contains approximately ___ mgs of sodium.
2,300-4,700
Which of the following is true about the vitamin and mineral intake of athletes?
Most athletes tend to consume ample vitamins and minerals if they meet their kcalorie needs.
Which of the following is true about the protein intake for athletes?
Most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs.
What is the name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions?
Adenosine triphosphate
Which of the following is true about protein as an energy source?
The need for protein as an energy source is greater for endurance athletes than those who body build or lift weights.
Bart is a wrestler. His weight is regularly higher than the weight class he would like to wrestle in. What should he do?
Gradually reduce food intake before wrestling season.
Which of the following is a benefit of physical fitness?
. Better sleep habits
A well-tolerated exercise for overweight people is
Bicycling
The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis is what
the end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid
The best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced as a result of a workout is to what?
weigh before and after the workout
For which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted?
Marathon
What is the term to describe failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that either fails to meet or greatly exceeds nutritional needs?
Malnutrition
Failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that does not meet nutritional needs is termed
Undernutrition
Which of the following is true about chronic hunger in the world?
The primary cause of hunger is poverty.
The Special Supplemental Feeding Program for Women, Infants, and Children
provides food vouchers and nutrition education to low-income pregnant and lactating women and their young children
The homeless in the United States are at increased risk of undernutrition. Which of the following is true about the homeless?
Many are members of families with children.
The manipulation of nature (plants, animals, and bacteria) to increase production and food yield and the use of living things to manufacture products is called
biotechnology
The major cause of undernutrition in the United States is
political
Impaired development or function that results from an inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of the nutrients needed for optimal growth, development, and body function is best termed
undernutrition
The program developed in the 1960s to help increase availability of foods to entire families is the
Food stamp program
The consequences of undernutrition are most critical during
Infancy
The way hunger is best addressed in the United States is through
providing more federal, state, and local governmental food subsidy programs and funding.
Which of the following is the best approach to preventing famine in developing nations?
Increase the productivity of rural people by teaching them farming methods so they can build agricultural surpluses to eat and sell
The single most effective health advantage for people wherever they live is
safe and convenient water supply.
Covering cuts or sores on hands and avoiding sneezing when handling food are important to prevent foodborne illness from?
Staphylococcus
Of the following groups, which have the least risk of becoming ill from foodborne illness?
Teens
Common symptoms of foodborne illness include
fever, diarrhea, vomiting
The best way to prevent the foodborne illness E. coli (Escherichia coli) is to
cook meat throughly
Sugar acts as a food preservative by
reducing the amount of free water in food.
Norovirus causes an illness that is commonly misdiagnosed as
The stomach flu
A new food preservation method, aseptic processing, is especially useful for
fruit juices
Treating food with gamma radiation as a preservation method is called
food irradation
Which of the following is true about food irradiation?
Irradiation can slow or limit the growth of insects, microorganisms, and parasites in food.
A common cause of foodborne illness that results from sneezing or coughing over food is
Staphylococcus aureus.
To avoid Salmonella contamination
store chicken at 40° F or below.
Food commonly associated with Salmonella
intoxication are
chicken and eggs.
Which of the following agencies enforces wholesomeness and quality standards for meat?
USDA
Adolescents obtain ______ percent of their energy and nutrient intakes from snacks.
25-33
If a child is to follow a totally vegetarian diet, greater attention should be given to which of the following nutrients?
Protein and vitamin B-12
Absence of breakfast for children is associated with
decreased performance in school and decreased attention span
According to present day growth charts, an infant will double his or her birth weight at about ______ months of age.
6
Iron stores present at birth generally are depleted by ______ to ______ months.
4-6
Susie is 3 years old. At her most recent checkup she was at the 20th percentile for height. This means that
79 of 100 (80%) of girls her age are taller than she is.
Infants need fat because it aids in absorption of several vitamins and also helps the ______________ to develop.
nervous system
Children will more effectively develop the breakfast eating habit if
parents eat breakfast with them.
Which of the following minerals may be low in the diets of adolescent girls?
Iron and calcium
Egg whites should not be fed to children before 1 year of age because
early introduction may result in an allergic reaction
Nursing bottle syndrome results in _______________ in bottle-fed infants.
Dental caries
The adolescent growth spurt
begins earlier in girls than boys
The first solid foods usually introduced into an infant's milk diet are
Iron fortified cereals
Feeding problems may develop during the preschool years partially because of
decreased appetite
Approximately what percentage of obese adolescents become obese adults?
80%
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so in moderation, defined as the consumption of up to __ drink per day for women and older adults and up to __ drinks per day for men.
1:2
Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism?
Liver
Loss of vision and hearing can negatively affect nutritional health. The biggest problem is the inability to
Shop for food
Which of the following is the best definition of life expectancy?
The time an average person can expect to live
Aging most likely is the result of
slow cell death
Which of the following is the best definition of life span?
The potential oldest age a person can reach
Bud has trouble with his dentures and problems chewing. Which of the following foods would be best to help meet his nutritional needs?
yogurt
Maude is losing her sense of taste and smell. Which of the following is true about her situation?
She will need to vary her diet and use more herbs and spices.
Use of certain diuretics can increase the need for what nutrient?
Potassium