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chemical change

A change that occurs when two substances react to produce entirely different substances.

chemical equation (balanced)

An equation with an equal number of atoms in the reactants and products.

chemical formula

A representation of a compound that includes the symbols and numbers of atoms in the compound.

chemical reaction

The breaking of bonds to form new substances.


The "6" in 6H2O

covalent bond

A bond between atoms in which electrons are shared.


The substance produced in a chemical reaction.


A substance that enters into and is changed during a chemical reaction.


The "2" in H2O


An atom that has an electrical charge because it gained or lost an electron.

ionic bond

A bond between atoms in which electrons are lost or gained.

law of conservation of mass

You cannot create or lose mass in a reaction.

octet rule

Most atoms need eight valence electrons to be stable.

oxidation number

A number that indicates how many electrons will be gained or lost during bonding.

physical change

Ice melting is an example of this kind of change.

polyatomic ion

An ion like CO3 or OH

exothermic reaction

A chemical reaction in which energy is released.

endothermic reaction

A chemical reaction in which energy is required.

nuclear reaction

A reaction that involves splitting the nucleus of an atom or fusing 2 nuclei to make a new atom.


The process of combining the nuclei of atoms to make different atoms.


Breaking up the nucleus of an atom.

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