61 terms

Skin and body membranes

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Body membrane
Covers serfaces, lines body cavities, and form protection
Epithelial membrane
Covering and lining the membranes, includes the cutaneous membrane.
Cutaneous membrane
Superficial epidermis is composed of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium.
Mucous membrane
Composed of epithelium resting on a loose connective tissue membrane.
Serous membrane
Composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium resting in a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.
Serous fluid
The serous layers are separated not by a Air but by a scanty amount of thin, clear fluid.
Peritoneum
The serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs.
Pleura
The membrane surrounding the lungs.
Pericardium
The pleura that is around the heart.
Synovial membranes
Composed of soft areolar connective tissue and containing no epithelial cells at all.
Skin
Cutaneous membrane serves a number of functions, mostly protective.
Integumentary system
Organs make up this system.
Integument
"Covering" the skin is much more than an external body covering.
Kertain
Hardened to help prevent water loss from the body surface.
Epidermis
Made up of stratified squamous epithelium that is capable of becoming hard and tough.
Dermis
Made up of mostly of dense connective tissue. The epidermis and dermis are firmly connected.
Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis)
Deep to the dermis, essentially is adipose tissue.
Keratinocytes
Produced keratin, the fibrous protein that makes the epidermis a tough protective layer.
Stratum basale
Deepest cell layer of the epidermis, lies closest to the dermis and is connected to it along a wavy borderline that resembles corrugated cardboard.
Stratum spinosum
Become flatter and increasingly full of keratin.
Stratum granulosum
Become flatter and increasingly full of keratin.
Stratum lucidum
Latter epidermis layer is not present in all skin regions (occurs on palms of hands and soles of feet).
Stratum corneum
20-30 cell layers thick but accounts for about 3/4 of the epidermal thickness.
Melanin
Pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black, produced by special spider-shapes cells.
Melanocytes
Produce melanin, found chiefly in the stratum basale.
Herpes simplex (a cold sore)
Virus are more likely to have an eruption after sunbathing.
Papillary layer
Upper dermal region.
Dermal papillae
Uneven and has peglike projections from its superior surface.
Reticular layer
Deepest skin layer. Contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and deep pressure receptors.
Decubitus ulcers
Occur in bedridden patients who are not regular turned or who are dragged or pulled across the bed repeatedly.
Cyanosis
A condition when hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated, both the blood and the skin of caucasians appear blue
Skin appendages
Cutaneous glands, hair follicles and nails.
Exocrine glands
Release their secreations to the skin surface via ducts.
sebaceous glands (oil glands)
Found over the skin except on the palm of hands and soles of feet.
Sebum
Mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells. Lubricant that keeps the skin soft and moist, prevents the hair from becoming brittle.
Sweat glands (sudoriferous)
Widely distributed, more than 2.5 million per person.
Eccrine gland
Produce sweat
Sweat
Clear secreation that is primarily water plus some salts, vitamin c, traces of metabolic waste, and lactic acid.
Apocrine gland
Largely confined to the axillary and genital areas. Secretion contains fatty acids and proteins.
Hairs
Guard the head, shielding the eyes, help to keep foreign particles out of respiratory tract.
Matrix
Hair is formed by division of well nourished stratum basale epithelial cells.
Hair follicles
Made of epidermaial sheath, dermal sheath, papilla.
Arrector pili
Small bond if smooth muscle cells.
Nail
Scalelike modification of the epidermis that corresponds to the hoof or claw of other animals.
Athletes foot
Itchy, red, peeling condition of the skin resulting from fungus infection.
Boils and carbuncles
Inflammation if hair follicles and sebaceous glands, typically cause be a bacterial infection.
Cold sores
Small fluid filled blisters that itch and sting, cause by a herpes simplex infection .
Contact dermatitis
Itching, redness, and swelling of skin, cause by exposure to chemicals.
Impetigo
Pink, water filled, raised leasions, cause by a highly contagious staphylococcus infection.
Psoriasis
Chronic condition over productive skin cells that results in reddened epidermal lesions.
Burn
Tissue damage and cell death caused by intense heat.
Rule of nines
Divides the body into 11 areas each accounting for 9% of the total body surface area.
First degree burn
Only epidermis is damaged
Second degree burn
Injury to the epidermis and the upper region or the dermis.
Partial thickness burn
First and second degree burns are called partial thickness burn.
Third degree burn
Destroys entire thickness of skin.
Full thickness burn
A third degree burn.
Basal cell carcinoma
The least malignant and most common skin cancer.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Arises from cells of the stratum spinosum.
Malignant melanoma
Cancer of melanocytes, accounts for 5% of skin cancers and it is often deadly.
ABCD
Asymmentry
Border irregularity
Color
Diameter