Express desire, abandoned Victorianism, authenticity, sensual experience (a. modern life became bleak, b. population growth, market appeals to higher people, c. cultural collision (melting pot)
Thought baseball was derived from English game called "Rounders". Finding that Spalding and NL owners readily accepted, declaring that Doubleday's "invention" freed baseball from the trammels of English traditions, customs, and conventionalities
Fixed World Series. End of WWI era, 8 players accepted 5,000-10,000 bucks. Banned for life from baseball. Does not affect the game
Dink Stover at Yale
Almost like "Tom Brown's Schooldays", democratized college, proven ground for manliness, show merits off in classroom and fielding; went to college to be a man, the route to existence.
Babe Ruth's Agent, got Ruth's name out there by using products, made individuals larger than life.
Promoted boxing at MSG. Was part of bringing best boxing match that had Jack Dempsey involved with the fight. Promoted the Jack Johnson fight versus Jess Willard.
College running back at Illinois. He signed with the Chicago Bears which legitimized the NFL.
First African American boxer to win the World Heavyweight title (1908), represented idea of the "New Negro" in early-1900s American culture. married several white women.
12th man, left football team at the end of 1921 season to being working out with the basketball team. Injuries and sub rules left the A and M couch unsure if he would run out of players before the game ended, so he sent a message in the stands asking if Gill would be ready to play the second half. Stood at the end of the bench if the team should call onto him. A and M section now stands up to symbolically say their ready to serve
First stadium that took the chance to make the stadium bigger than expected. 70,000 plus fit in the Yale Bowl. Full game versus rival Princeton. Building the Yale Bowl committed universities to broadening the spectacle because they were now heavily dependent upon the gate revenue to service the notes on these stadiums.
Superficial distraction. Generated various responses from both the public and academia, causing anger to outright denial to utter ambivalence. Reporter on campus visits and interviews with coachers, administration, faculty who provided a scathing indictment of CFB, revealed limit of academic concern, heavy commercialization.
Allowed back into play due to gate fees, the gate was the goverance of the sport, wanted the game to grow. Rated as best tennis player ever.
Didn't see money they made off of her on the tennis court, challenged to establish social norms, unwilling to play game the way the system was in use, exploited, unhappy, publicity off the court for her flamboyant lifestyle and her deep ambivalence about prevailing notions of respectable femine propriety.
First black player to win the US Open and Wimbeldon. Dominant tennis player. She was excluded from the major tournaments. Wasn't allowed into national tournament due to her skin color, she was later invited after Alice Marble ripped the USLTA on not letting black people into the tournament.
- Established professional golf, son of immigrants, was a caddie, he was good at the age of 20 beating professionals. Emerged as the quintessential American Myth. Afterglow form Ouimet's victory also occurred as the upper middle class witnessed a dramatic expansion of wealth during the 1920s. Private golf clubs rose to 600%.
Won four gold medals in 1936 Berlin Olympics. AAU controversy. AAU informed him that they would not pay for his passage home if he hadn't appeared at the Olympic committee. Lost his glory, when he came back to Ohio State, OSU offered him a job as a janitor and he never finished his degree
Teammate of Jackie Robinson at UCLA for football. Part of the intergration of blacks in the NFL, he signed with Rams along with Woody Strode. He was passed his prime because of a knee injury he suffered during the war, and he enjoyed only a brief and non-distinct pro career. Started the stage of adding black players to rosters.
Southern teams didn't want to play against teams with black athletes, so the opposing team wasn't allowed to play him even if they were the star player. College students were not to fond of the idea and students threatened to boycott bowl games and games itself.
The Women's Division
Created a powerful interlocking membership with other organization aimed at girls and young women, sucah as girls scouts, and others. "Sport for every girl, every girl in a game." Introduced women athletic competition such as intramurals, telegraph meets, play days, and sport days.
Pioneer of women's basketball, authoring the first Basketball Guide for women. She was also jewish. First person to adapt rules and introduce women's basketball
AAU Women's Basketball Tourney
Tapped into the large network or existing company teams. Highly competitive and commercialized, and its critics say it was exploitive as well. Wore attention grabbing uniforms, that were known as sexualized because they showed their arms for godsake. Some thought women's bball was the worst purveyor of professionalism and sexualization.
Little League Baseball
Noticeable expansion of organized youth sports during the period, which proponents saw as both a necessary training ground for burgeoning Cold Warriors but also as a way to confront the alleged youth crisis. Used it as an antidote to the crisis of juvenile delinquency decrease in proportion to the opportunities of the young people. 307 leagues scattered throughout several states by 1949. Baseball provided a splendid way for young people to fit themselves for the rigorous competition of life
1951 Point Shaving Scandal
CCNY basketball team, college ball was tops in NY. City style of play. Point spreads were brought into effect which made betters into the game more. Eddy Gorrg?<-- had players everywhere, he was a person that was part of the Jewish sports club and brought the players to show them off. CCNY was struggling during the games, it looked like it too. Julius Kellogg informed coach of the bribe. Gloom over school. CCNY was ruined
The Soft American
Americans needed not just fitness, but toughness on which the courage and intelligence and skill so largely depend. (Kennedy era). Weaklings didn't get anywhere in life and they wont in the next world.
Presidential Council on Phys. Fitness
Nation-wide series of track and field clinics that eventually reached 15 million American children. Fitness intiative was essential to the ongoing life of our nation.
Overprotective parents in what Phillip Wylie called "momism". Decried in his book Generation of Vipers that there was a laundry list of ills facing the country, including mothers unwilling to allow their sons to engage in activities that might result in physical harm. "Fractured ankles leave less of a scar than a personality frustrated by reason of parental timidity over participation in contact sports.
U.S. Olympic Development Center
it was to spur interest in less prominent, non-native, sports that were nonetheless contested at the Olympics. Wanted to increase American participation in world championships and other international meets. Wanted to keep up with those Russians. Government funded.
The Black Athlete
Were considered a freak. Thought to be known to have larger feet compared to white people which made the faster then whites. Whites thought blacks were too good at sports. Whites stripped black athletes of the social capital gained by athletic success. Athletically different. Thought blacks were closer to the primitive than the white man.
Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women. Scared of NCAA. AIAW resisted any model that embraced fully rationalized competitive college sports for women. IT was left to other forces to create popular acceptance of women's sports. Cold War athletics made women's sport important now.
Main women track stars in 1960s. Every American medal for women's track and field was won by a Tigerbelle. TSU demonstrated that when provided appropriate facilities and coaching, American women could excel athletically. It then started the AIAW or had an effect on the AIAW
12 year old little leaguer that played in 3 games before opposing coaches complained and she was thrown out of the league. NOW chapter sued on Pepe's behalf in state court claiming that Little Leagues use of public fields violated the public accomodations. Pepe's challenge opend up sporting activities to girls, other events also helped aid the profile of women's athletics.
Grove City College Decision
The immediate reaction to the Supreme Court's. decision in the Grove City College.case has been far out of proportion'to the actual effect of the holding. In its ruling, the C ourt'held 9-0 that-scholarship aid to students who attend private colleges constitutes'aid to those colleges. The Court also ruled 6-2 that "any education program or activity receiv- ing federal financial assistance" (the language of Title-IX of the 1972 Education Act) means only the-.specific program receiving the-assistance (in this case the financial aid program of Grove City College,'Pennsyl- vania), and-not-the entire institution
the Ironman Triathlon, featuring a 2-mile ocean swim, 115-mile bike ride, and a full marathon, beginning in 1978. ABC's Wide World Sports gave both national prominences, airing the events well into the 1980s. ABC's telecast of the 1982 Ironman women's competition elevated the event to iconic status due to the heart-breaking finish of Julie Moss, who had led the entire event until exhaustion forced her to collapse 20 yards from the finish and lose.