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45 terms

Psychology Final Module 4

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The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
Axon
. The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called
Threshold
. Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is
all or none response
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
Neurotransmitters
. Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the
axon
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
reuptake
Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in
multiple sclerosis
. Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse?
dendrite, cell body, axon, synapse
polarized, with mostly positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside
resting state
Dr. Hernandez is studying neurotransmitter abnormalities in depressed patients. She would most likely be working from a ___ perspective
biological
Melissa has just completed running a marathon. She is so elated that she feels little fatigue or discomfort. Her lack of pain is probably the result of the release of
endorphins
Alzheimer's disease is most closely lined to the deterioration of neurons that produce
acetylcholine
Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as
endorphins
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
dopamine
An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to
depression
A focus on the links between brain activity and behavior is most characteristic of psychologists who work from a ___ perspective
biological
The function of dendrites is to
receive incoming signals from other neurons
The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the
axon
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)
myelin sheath
. The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)
action potential
A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers
more nuerons to fire and to fire more often
The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron
synapses
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will therby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the
synaptic gaps
. Jose has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the relase of
endorphins
Migraines are most closely linked with an
oversupply of glutamate
You are able to pull your hand quickly away from hot water before pain is felt because:
movement of the hand is a reflex that involves intervention of the spinal cord only
The body's natural production of endorphins is liely to be
decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise
The effect of a drug that mimics a certain neurotransmitter is a
agonist
Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by clocking the release of
acetylcholine
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the ___ nervous system
peripheral
Information travels through axons that are bundled into the cables that we call
nerves
You feel the pain of a sprained ankle when ___ relay(s) messages from your ankle to your central nervous system
sensory neurons
Central nervous system neurons that process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs are called
interneurons
. Some neurons enable you to grasp objects by relaying outgoing messages to the muscles in your arms and hands. These neurons are called
motor neurons
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the
automatic nervous system
Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?
the sympathetic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system
stimulates digestion and slows heart beat
. I am a relatively fast-acting chemical messenger that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. What am I?
serotonin
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are ___ that are released by the ___ gland.
hormones; adrenal
I am a relatively slow-acting (but long-lasting) chemical messenger carried throughout the body by the bloodstream. What am I?
a hormone
The gland that regulates body growth is the
pituitary
The hypothalamus influences the ___ to send messages to the ___
pituitary; endocrine glands
This pituitary gland hormone enables contractions during childbirth, milk flow during nursing, has been found to promote bonding and social trust.
oxytocin
The endocrine gland responsible for regulating metabolism is ____
thyroid
The pineal gland produces this hormone in the dark and stops production when light hits our eyes.
melatonin