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Modern World exam
Terms in this set (94)
The emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
A cosmological model in which the Sun is assumed to lie at or near a central point (e.g., of the solar system or of the universe) while the Earth and other bodies revolve around it.
Any theory of the structure of the solar system (or the universe) in which Earth is assumed to be at the centre of all.
Polish astronomer who proposed that the planets have the Sun as the fixed point to which their motions are to be referred.
English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution, came up with the 3 newton's laws of gravity
In philosophy, a system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law.
Ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics.
Jefferson's draft declaration. In these two paragraphs, Jefferson developed some key ideas: "all men are created equal," "inalienable rights," "life, liberty, and property."
Baron de Montesquieu
Member of the Bordeaux and French Academies of Science and studied the laws and customs and governments of the countries of Europe. 3 branches of government.
English philosopher whose works lie at the foundation of modern philosophical empiricism and political liberalism. 3 natural rights. Life, liberty, property.
Political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.
Draftsman of the Declaration of Independence of the United States and the nation's first secretary of state, second vice president, and, as the third president, the statesman responsible for the Louisiana Purchase.
Denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions.
When the forces guarding the structure resisted, the attackers captured the prison, releasing the seven prisoners held there.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
One of the basic charters of human liberties, containing the principles that inspired the French Revolution.
Radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution, lead rien of terror
Committee of Public Safety
Political body of the French Revolution that gained virtual dictatorial control over France during the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
The Revolutionary government decided to make "Terror" the order of the day and to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution.
He was the king during the french revolution.
Was the last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution, and helped provoke the popular unrest that led to the French Revolution and to the overthrow of the monarchy.
Wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers, then benefited from economies of scale in farming huge tracts of land, and led to improved crop production, such as the rotation of crops.
A business or manufacturing activity carried on in a person's home.
Invented the cotton gin.
Invented the steam engine.
First generation of workers had difficulty adjusting to the rigid and demanding schedules of the factories, poor health conditions, prices for many consumer goods dropped - made everything cheaper, especially cotton, produced lots of wealth.
Classical Economic Liberalism
A political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with representative democracy under the rule of law and emphasizes economic freedoms found in economic liberalism which is also called free market capitalism.
Scottish political economist and philosopher, The Wealth of Nations, and Laissez-Faire.
Government does not interfere with business
Essay on the Principle of Population
Economic equality, government regulation of the economy,
private property should be abolished.
Raised workers wages, created schools, shared the wealth, his factory worked really well because workers were healthy and were able to work hard.
Complete sexual freedom, no marriage to tie down women, people rotate jobs every day, all people will be happy and live to 140 years old, and all profits will be shared.
Began exploring sociopolitical theories at university among the Young Hegelians.
Origin of species:
1.) Struggle for Existence
2.) Survival of the fittest
3.) Variations within a species
4.) New species develop
Impact of Darwin
1.) Secular explanation for creation, that exphasized accident over order
2.) Disturbed the concept of a comfortable universe, with humans as the center of creation
3.) Lead to Social Darwinism - A transfer of the scientific ideas of Darwinism from biology to human relationships
The theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals.
Principle of Ethics, wanted to segregate the poor.
Believed the world should only have Anglo Saxons, black skin was a sign of inferiority and Blacks were becoming extinct.
people with blond hair, blue eyes, white
Arthur de Gobineau
Essay on the inequality of the human races, nordic races were superior, but inferior races breeded faster. Race mixing was ruining civilization.
loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially: a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations or supranational groups.
World War 1 main cause
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
Romantic republican from the south
Count Camillo Cavour
Prime minister from the Piedmont to King Victor Emmanuel III, wanted one king throughout Italy.
King Victor Emanuel
1866 - Venice joined Italy
1871 - Only the Vatican remained independent on a unified Italy
Whereas Camillo di Cavour directed Italian unification, a Junker (the Prussian name for an aristocratic landowner from old Prussia in the east) named Otto von Bismarck pushed German unification through "blood and iron" and skillful understanding of realpolitik.
Otto von Bismarck
Prime Minister, Bismarck started wars against Denmark in 1864, Austria in 1866 to unify northern germany, provoked France into the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 to unify Southern Germany, this creating the German Confederation or Modern Germany in 1871.
Result of German Unification
Italy was a new and growing power in Southern Europe, Germany was a new and powerful industrial nation in Central Europe, France was in turmoil over the Franco-Prussian War (They gave up the Alsace-Lorraine to germany), The Austrian-Hungarian Empire was weakened, All of the above changed the balance of power in Europe.
King William I
German Unification, loved the military, but hated liberals.
Balance of power
People have power, so that not just one person had all of it.
Eastern European people
Countries taking colonies to feed their industrial appetites, obtaining colonies.
Treaty of Nanking - British trying to sell to China, but they refused to buy - they lost. During second Opium War, China lost again.
India wanted to be independent use a musket, had to have grease in order to fire, but India refused to use them. They lost.
Countries fighting over Africa, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
Bismarck (German Prime Minister) with king William 1 Masterminded the formation of: Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary.
Means to express nationalism: To validate the myth of Social Darwinism, To ensure protection from rival nations
To procure colonies, needed to feed the industrial appetite. One result was increasing control of governments by military leaders.
Great Britain, France, Russia vs. Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy.
Political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy.
Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
Serbia wanted to be independent and wanted to create a large nation, Serbia wanted to have access to the sea so that they could trade because they were land locked, and Russians were mad because they wanted to take care of the Serbians.
2nd Moroccan Crisis
William messes with morocco, and sends a gun boat called the panther to intimidate the french. This caused the french to get closer with great britain. They were afraid of Germany.
Bulgaria, romania, serbia wanted to get Turkey (Ottoman Empire), Fought for turkey, fighting against each other.
Ferdinand was the heir of the throne of Austria, was shot with his wife, The Black Hand (terrorist) from serbia who wanted to kill him.
war between russia and japan, the russians were embarrassed because they lost to the japanese. Social Darwinism - russian and white think that they are better than asian people, so they go to war.
King William 2nd
He fired Bismarck, tried to motion to make people tense, had a crippled arm. 1890 - Bismarck was dismissed. 1904: England and France sign a trade agreement because of him.
Franco Prussian War
Unified Germany, and France wanted revenge on Germany.
1st Moroccan Crisis
King William II comes back and tells the moroccans to tell them that they should become independent. Europe told French to keep Morocco.
Austria-Hungary issued demands to Serbia
July 23, 1914, can't stand serbians, took their time coming up with a reaction, Russia begins a partial mobilization with their army for war, did not mobilize entire army.
To get ready to go to war
July 28, 1914
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
August 1, 1914
Germany declared war on France and Russia
August 3, 1914
Germany invaded Belgium
August 4, 1914
England declared war on Germany
Battle of Marne
French and Germans, German troops got very close to paris, but they did not make it there, trying to block the germans from entering, anyone who could drive were taking troops, started to dig holes in the ground (trench) so they could shoot and hide, miles of trenches from both sides of French and Germans.
Repeating rifles, machine guns, more accurate long range artillery, poison gas, airplanes, submarines, and tanks.
Battle of Gallipoli
England wanted to get supplies to Russia, Turkey knew England was coming and created defensive trenches, England never got through to Russia.
Battle of Verdun
Trench battle, launched a massive assault, almost a million people were killed or wounded.
Battle of the Somme
British lost to try to help the French, Germans were bombing british for 3 days.
Lusitania, Sussex, Sussex Pledge, and Revocation of the Sussex Pledge.
Russian Revolution and withdrawal from the war, latamore lennon told the russians to leave the army, and they did, communist quit. Germany did not have to fight on two sides. United states entry into WWI.
Armistice, war ended, which is now Veterans day.
Self-determination, Peace without Victory, Disarmament, Fair treatment of colonial people, Protection of human rights, League of Nations. President Wilson, "war to end all wars".
choose own destiny
Peace without Victory
did not want to punish losers
get rid of weapons
Fair treatment of colonial people
everyone to be treated well
League of Nations
world government, United Nations
Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations, Article 231 - War guilt clause, German loss of colonial territory in the Pacific and in Africa, and German military restrictions.
German military restrictions
Rhine River - Demilitarized, very limited navy - 36 vessels, no air force, no draft, limited standing army - 100,000 soldiers, polish corridor, and German Reparations.
Death of WWI
10,000,000 military deaths, 15,000,000-20,000,000 civilian deaths.
Results of WWI
Full development of the concept of Total War, due to the Industrial Revolution, changes in the map of Europe, United States reverted back to isolationist stance, led to the rise of totalitarian dictators, and increased ultranationalism and fear among nations of Europe.
countries with totalitarian rulers due to war
Italy, Germany, and Russia.
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