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Terms in this set (88)
Discretion is defined as
A decision by criminal justice official based on the best course of action
Discretion increases as one moves down the police organization. Police are known as
Street level bureaucrats
Factors Limiting Patrol Officer Discretion
Legal, administrative, organizational cultural, situational
The seriousness of the crime and strength of the evidence are called
What is the main purpose in controlling police discretion?
To prevent abuse of police authority
The approach of guiding police officers' discretion via written policy is known as
The relations between police and racial-ethnic minority communities is referred to as
Police community relations
Differential treatment based on some extralegal category such as race, ethnicity, or gender is known as
The vast majority of Americans have a positive attitude about the police. True or false?
According to the text, the greatest gap between the attitudes of whites, Hispanics, and African Americans relates to how the police
The four dimensions of trust the authors describe are
Priorities, competence, dependability, respect
When you compare people to police and the larger society, people who are the victims of discrimination or who feel powerless or alienated from society
Are likely to have more negative attitudes toward the police
The fact that police officers are more likely to remember unpleasant or traumatic incidents than routine uneventful ones is known as
The US Supreme Court decision that accelerated the trend toward adoption of the defense of life standard, which greatly restricts the use of deadly force by police officers was:
Tennessee v Garner
Officers are more likely to use force against criminal suspects. Officers are also more likely to use force against male suspects. In other words, police use of force is more likely to be associated with certain
The vast majority of crimes are interracial. True or False?
Most complaints about police harassment come from
What is Rotten pocket?
a few corrupt officers cooperating with one another
Officers generally work alone with no direct supervision and the risk of being caught is often very low. The is known as
Low visibility work
The refusal of officers to testify against other officers is called
The blue curtain of silence
There are two basic approaches the the control of corruption within an organization
Internal and external
The term_________ refers to police and other government agencies having to answer to the public.
One of the central tasks of police management primarily falling upon the Sergeant
The system which identifies officers with a disproportionate number of citizen complaints is called
Early intervention systems
Citizen oversight was designed to
Provide some independent citizen input into the complaint process
Which of the following is not one of the problems with citizen review agencies?
It undermines police authority and their ability to make arrests
A factor that limits patrol officer discretion that involves supreme court decisions, state court decisions, and state law is called:
These factors that limit police officer discretion includes department policy and supervision:
These factor that limit police officer discretion involves peer officer culture:
organizational culture factors
Police discretion is influenced by the circumstances of each situation. This is known as...
What are the four factors that influence police discretion?
Situational, community, organizational, and local political
The idea that police deny that they exercise discretion and claim that they fully enforce the law is called...
myth of full enforcement
Why do we not abolish discretion?
it is both inevitable and can be used for positive purposes
What are three examples of administrative rule-making?
Deadly force, domestic violence, and high-speed pursuits
This central tool of modern police management has written rules and policies that are collected and codified for each police department.
Standard operation procedure manual
One of the most important functions of citizen oversight of the police is...
The old term ___ ____ ____ primarily refers to relations between the police and racial and ethnic minority communities.
police community relations
Differential treatment based on some extralegal category such as race, ethnicity, or gender.
Different outcomes that are not necessarily caused by differential treatment.
Most Americans are satisfied with the police in their communities. True or false?
The profile of a community with massive distrust in police is:
Young, minority, poor, and uneducated.
This theory holds that people distinguish between outcomes.
Police generally have an accurate perception of public attitudes toward them. True or False?
The concept that refers to the police's disproportionate level of interaction with criminals.
The concept that refers to the police's disproportionate views about the deviance of society as a whole.
Skolnick referred to young African Americans as...
Four Systems of justics
crimes by whites on whites, whites on african-americans, african-americans on whites, and african-americans on african-americans
The most common complaint voiced by minorities about the police is...
Who posits that the use of force incidents accumulate over time?
Involve a crime control strategy of both identifying and apprehending offenders, and sending a message of deterrence to people on the street.
Young racial and ethnic minority males regard field interrogations as
The President's Crime Commission found that field interrogations were "a major cause of tensions between the police and
Experts believe that a certain amount of ____ ______ in traffic enforcement is the result of a police officer deciding that an African American or Hispanic driver is "out of place" in a white neighborhood.
The major argument for police justifications for racial disparities is that African Americans and Hispanics are ____ ____ to be engaged in criminal activity.
Three approaches to profiling
written policy, police officer training, and data collection and analysis
Operated programs designed to improve relations with minority communities that spent most of their time speaking in schools and to community groups
Programs that allow citizens to ride in a patrol car for a few hours, observing potentially dangerous incidents from a distance.
Minorities regarded most ______ programs as "public relations puff" and a "deliberate con game."
Acts involving the misuse of authority by a police officer in a manner designed to produce personal gain for himself or for others.
Criminal and noncriminal behavior committed during the course of normal work activities or committed under the guise of the police officer's authority.
Action by police officers that tends to injure, insult, trespass upon human dignity...and/or violate an inherent legal right of a citizen
Abuse of authority
officers who passively accept what was offered to them
officers who demand favors consistently
Three types of pervasiveness of corruption within a police organization.
rotten apples and rotten pockets, pervasive unorganized corruption, and pervasive organized corruption
This theory describes a situation where only a few officers are independently engaged in corrupt acts.
This theory describes when several corrupt officer cooperate with one another.
This type of pervasive corruption is when a majority of personnel who are corrupt, but who have little relationship to each other.
Pervasive unorganized corruption
The most serious form of corruption exists at an organized level that penetrates the higher levels of the department
Pervasive organized corruption
Different groups have used the law to prohibit behavior that offends their values.
The level of corruption in a police department is heavily influenced by the....
local political culture
Officers generally work alone or in pairs, with no direct supervision.
Low visibility work
Officers typically go through a process involving a series of stages that move from lesser to greater tolerance of and/or involvement in corrupt activities.
Moral career of a police officer
A police department becomes progressively corrupt because the department's leadership does not actively_________ corruption
Attitude of Chief of Police, Rules and Regulation, Internal Affairs Investigations, Parting the "blue curtain"Proactive integrity tests, Effective Supervision, Rewarding Good Officers, Personnel Recruitment are all examples of...
Special investigations, Criminal prosecution, Mobilizing public opinion are all examples of
The approach of the dimensions of accountability that involve crime rate, clearance rate, and response time
the approach of the dimensions of accountability that involves citizen surveys
What combines a geographic focus, the concept of hot spots, and problem solving?
What task is one of the central tasks of police management, in which the responsibility primarily falls on sergeants?
The ratio of sergeants to officers is referred to as
span of control
Organization culture is affected by
code of silence
One of the most important tools for holding officers accountable is providing ___ ___ governing the exercise of discretion in handling critical incident and then to require officers to complete written reports .
This office is responsible for investigating alleged misconduct by police officers.
internal affairs unit
a management information system that complies and analyzes data on problematic police officer behavior, citizen complaints, police officer use-of-force reports, and other indicators to identify officer with recurring performance problems.
Early intervention systems
Officer use of force reports, citizen complaints, officer involvement in civil suits, vehicle pursuits, resisting arrest charges filed by the officer, use of sick leave, and disciplinary actions against the officer are all examples of:
A process of self-regulation that is used in virtually all professions
External mechanisms of accountability
the political process, the courts, federal suits
A process by which people who are not sworn officers are involved in some way in the review of citizen complaints against police officers
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