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world history // midterm part two
Terms in this set (158)
three weapons used by popes to discipline offenders of the church
excommunication, interdict, inquisition
what did excommunication deprive an individual of?
sacraments and church fellowship
what was the inquisition?
a church court
what was the interdict?
the suspension of public church services and sacraments
term referring to the holding of the beliefs contrary to the teaching of the church
what two countries did the holy roman empire include?
germany and italy
In the year 1066 __________________ (in France) and ___________ (in England) both claimed the English throne.
William of Normandy; Harold of Wessex
___________ defeated Harold at the ____________ and established the Norman line of kings.
William; Battle of Hastings
William defeated __________ at the Battle of Hastings and established the __________ line of kings.
Who became known as William the Conquerer?
William of Normandy
Although _________ was the duke of Normandy in France prior to becoming ____________, he was never king of France.
William; king of England
Although William was the ______________ prior to becoming king of England, he was never _______________.
Duke of Normandy in France; king of France
Who strengthened the royal authority in England by expanding the jurisdiction of the royal courts?
How did Henry II strengthen the royal authority in England?
By expanding the jurisdiction of the royal courts
_______ established circuit courts and has his ________ travel around the land hearing cases.
Henry II; justices
Henry II established ________________ and has his justices travel around the land ______________.
Circuit cases; hearing cases
What was "common law"?
Laws resulting from hearing cases that were the uniform laws for all England
"Common law" was the forerunner of what would be common law in ______________.
The United States
Which kings participated in the King's Crusade?
Richard I of England, Philip Augustus of France, Frederick Barbosa of Germany
Who was the only king that participated in the King's Crusade and also fought in the Holy Land?
Why didn't Philip Augustus and Frederick fight in the Hold Land?
Frederick died on the way there and Philip returned to France after a dispute with Richard
Who was Saladin?
Muslim leader who was defeated in battles by Richard I but succeeded in holding Jerusalem
Why was King John forced to sign the Magna Carta?
He was weakened by conflicts with the French king, the pope, and the English nobles
Because he was weakened by conflicts with the French king, the pope, and the English nobles, ___________ was forced to sign the ____________.
King John; Magna Carta
What did the Magna Carta establish?
The principle that the king's power is limited
How did the English Parliament serve as a check on the king's power?
By asserting the "power of the purse"
What did the "power of the purse" require?
Required the king to obtain Parliament's approval in order to tax the people
The ______________ was able to serve as a check on the __________________ by asserting the "power of the purse".
English Parliament; English king's power
Which pope called the First Crusade and when did he call it?
Urban II; 1095
Which Crusade was the most successful of the 8 major Crusades?
The First Crusade
Why were Crusaders motivated to go to rescue Jerusalem?
Genuinely pious desire to serve Christ
Enjoyment of fighting for the Roman Church
Desire for commercial gain
What was a result of the crusades?
An increase in trade and the use of a money economy
What did Crusaders wear around their garments?
A cross symbol
Who laid the foundation for a unified England?
Alfred the Great
What did the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle do?
Traced the history of England from Roman times to Alfred's day
Alfred the Great was given the title ________________________.
"Founder of the English navy"
The Estates General in _________ was established by ___________.
France; Philip IV
The _________________ in France was established by Philip IV.
How was the Estates General like Parliament? Different?
It was a body of people representing the concerns of the people; it didn't have the power of the purse and the king could still rule as he pleased without the permission of the Estates General
Who was crowned emperor in 962?
The pope crowned ________ emperor in return for _______________.
Otto I; protecting Rome
Otto I was also known as ____________ and was credited with establishing the ______________________.
Otto the Great; Holy Roman Empire
Who were Friars?
Members of religious orders who renounced worldly possessions and pledged themselves to poverty
Friars were also known as ____________.
Why was the College of Cardinals created?
To enable the Roman Catholic Church, rather than the kings, to choose the pope
Why did the church seek to place restraints on business?
To prevent greed and the hoarding of wealth
What was expected from a man in medieval Europe?
He was expected to work for the common good of society and give any profit greater than the needs of the seller to charity
What is usury?
Practice of charging interest for the use of lent money
(T/F) Usury was prohibited by the church.
What contributed to the growth of towns in medieval Europe?
Population increase, increased agricultural production, and trade revival
What were guilds?
Organizations formed to regulate the business activity of a given town
What levels of skill did a member of a craft guild pass through?
Apprentice, journeyman, master
Who contributed to the decline of the feudal system, threatened the position of noblemen in society, and weakened the political authority of noblemen?
The middle class
How did the middle class enhance the power of the king?
By supplying needed tax revenue in the form of taxes
What were the primary centers of education in the Middle Ages?
Cathedrals and monasteries
When did universities grow in prominence?
In the latter years of the medieval period
What was scholasticism?
The intellectual movement characterized by a renewed interest in theology and philosophy
Medical science was filled with ________ and _____________.
____ and ____________ of the Middle Ages were most influenced by the church.
Art and architecture of the ____________ were most influenced by the ________.
Middle Ages; church
Who stirred the French to nationalism and motivated them to fight in the Hundred Year's War?
Joan of Arc
How did Joan of Arc stir the French to nationalism?
Accompanied the French into battle, captured by the English, and burned at the stake
What is the Great Schism?
Time period in which more than one pope claimed supremacy
What was the purpose of the Council of Constance?
To end the Great Schism
The purpose of __________________ was to end the Great Schism.
The Council of Constance
What did followers of scholasticism seek to do?
Merge the teachings of the church with the writings of Greek philosophers
Who sought to merge the teachings of the church with the writings of Greek philosophers?
Followers of scholasticism
Followers of scholasticism sought to merge the teachings of the church with the writings of Greek philosophers. This revealed _________ and _________ in the teachings of the ________.
Contradictions; fallacies; church
What aided to the coming of the Reformation?
The fallacies and contradictions in the teachings of the church were revealed
_________ is a French word meaning rebirth.
Renaissance is a French word meaning ________.
What was the birthplace of the Renaissance?
What stirred a rebirth of learning in Europe?
Florentine writers' study in the 14th century of the Greek and Roman classics
What were the primary reasons why Italy was where the Renaissance began?
The Italians thought of themselves as romans and as links to the ancient Roman Empire
Italian cities controlled the Mediterranean trade routes
Italian cities used their wealth to commission artists
Who was the Father of Humanism?
Francesco Petrarch devoted his life to ___________________ and led the way in ___________________________.
Studying the classics; reviving interest in classical literature
Who was an English humanist of deep piety who described an ideal built upon some Christian principles?
Sir Thomas More
Who were the most famous Renaissance patrons?
Members of the de Medici family
Which city controlled important trade routes to the East and became a leading cultural city?
Who was the most versatile man of the Renaissance?
Leonardo da Vinci
List some things Leonardo da Vinci did.
Accomplished sculptor, architect, painter, musician, and poet; also studied in several fields of of the natural sciences and mathematics
What did movable-type printing bring about?
A dramatic reduction in the cost of books
Elimination of errors caused by hand printing
Rapid spread of ideas and increasing education
Movable-type printing was put into use in Europe by _________________.
Who is considered the greatest playwright of all time and the finest poet in the English language?
Who was the foremost Spanish writer of the Renaissance?
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes wrote a satire on chivalry called _______________.
Who wrote a Greek new edition of the New Testament that would later be used by Martin Luther and others to translate the Bible into the common languages of the people.
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Who were the best artists of the high Renaissance?
Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael
_______________ painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in ____________, the residence of the pope.
Michelangelo; Vatican City
Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the ___________ in Vatican City, the residence of ___________.
Sistine Chapel; the pope
The ceiling in the Sistine Chapel depicts the story of ____________, _________, ___________, and _____________.
Creation; man's fall; the flood; redemption
Who was the German artist best known for his engravings and woodcuts?
Many of Albrecht Durer's paintings were amazingly accurate __________________.
Watercolors of scenes in nature
Who is considered the finest portrait artist of the northern Renaissance?
Who did Hans Holbein paint portraits of?
King Henry VIII, Thomas More, and Erasmus
Who was one of the first painters to use oil paints which allowed him to achieve greater realism in his paintings?
Jan van Eck
What are three distortions found in Michelangelo's Pieta sculpture?
Christ is portrayed without disfigurement
Mary is too young to be the mother of Christ
Mary is larger than life
The _______________ of the Renaissance prepared the way for the ____________.
Secular age; Reformation
Who was an early reformer in England who was called the "Morning Star of the Reformation"?
Followers of Wycliffe were known as ____________ who were ____________ for their beliefs.
Who preceded the Reformation and was condemned and burned at the stake?
John Huss was _____________ and ___________ at the stake at Constance in what was then known as __________.
Condemned; burned; Bohemia
Where did the Reformation begin?
What did Martin Luther discover in his study of Scripture?
Salvation is by faith, not works
Who discovered in his study of the scripture that salvation is by faith, not works?
What were indulgences?
Certificates that supposedly granted pardon from the punishment of sins
Who sold indulgences and why?
Sold by the church to raise money for projects in Rome
Who was pope during the Reformation?
When indulgence sales dropped off significantly, _________ was prompted to act upon ________'s protest against the sale of _____________.
Pope Leo; Luther; indulgences
When indulgence sales dropped of significantly, Pope Leo was promoted to act upon Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences. Prior to that time, Leo felt the dispute in _________ was a ______ issue between __________.
Germany; local; lesser monks
Who was a champion of Catholicism and debated Luther at Leipzig?
Johann Eck was a champion of _____________ and debated Luther at ___________.
Until the Leipzig debates, ___________ had considered himself a good Catholic and not a ________.
What did Martin Luther do when asked to recant his beliefs at the Diet of Worms?
Replied that he could not retract anything and finished by saying, "Here I stand. I can do no other. May God help me."
What did the Act of Supremacy (1534) do?
Made the king the "supreme head" of the church in England and placed the English church under direct control of the state
The _____________ was passed in Parliament at ___________'s behest (request).
Act of Supremacy; King Henry VIII
The Act of Supremacy was passed in ___________ at Henry VIII's ___________.
Parliament; behest (request)
The Act of Supremacy completed the break between ___________ and _____________.
England; the papacy
When attacked by the Spanish Armada of ships, ____________ of England defeated the Spanish sips because _______________ were more maneuverable.
Sir Francis Drake; English ships
When attacked by the ___________________, Sir Francis Drake of England defeated the Spanish ship because English ships were __________________.
Spanish Armada; more maneuverable
Besides English ships being more maneuverable, how else was sir Francis Drake able to defeat the Spanish Armada?
They were aided by severe storms which damaged or sunk several Spanish ships
_________________ of England ruled for ________ and was known as "Good Queen Bess".
Queen Elizabeth I; 45 years
Queen Elizabeth of ________ ruled for 45 years and was known as _____________.
England; "Good Queen Bess"
The _________________ established the Anglican Church as the state Church of England.
The Elizabethan Settlement established the ______________ as the ___________ of England.
Anglican Church; state church
The Elizabethan Settlement established the Anglican Church as the state church of England. The Anglican Church, however, retained many ______________________.
Catholic traditions and rituals
Who were Protestants in England who saw no hope for change in the English church and removed themselves from it?
A group of ___________ would travel to the new world and establish the colony of ________. They would be known as Pilgrims.
A group of Separatists would travel to the ________ and establish the colony of Plymouth. They would be known as the __________.
New world; Pilgrims
Who were Protestants in England who wished to cleanse the Anglican Church of its Catholic practices?
The __________________________ was a massacre of about 20,000 Huguenots who were __________________.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre; French Protestants
The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre was a massacre of about _________________ who were French Protestants.
The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre was instigated by _______________ who was from the powerful _______ family.
Catherine de Medici; Medici
The Counter Reformation is connected with the ______________.
What was the purpose of the Jesuit order?
To suppress heresy and promote catholic education
(T/F) The Jesuits believed it was perfectly proper to do wrong in order to accomplish good.
What was the Index (1559)?
List of prohibited books drawn up by the Catholic Church
The _______ had a monopoly on trade routes leading to the Orient.
__________ was an Italian who journeyed 4 years to get to China.
What is a term used to indicate the distance an object is from the equator?
What was a fast vessel of the 15th century that aided ocean travel?
The caravel combined triangular sails for ___________________ with rectangular sails for _________.
What was the principle goal of Prince Henry the Navigator?
Circumnavigation of Africa
What was the idea of the circumnavigation of Africa?
To pass around Africa to reach India and the Orient by sea
Who was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope?
Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal
Bartolomeu Dias was the first explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope but his crew refused to go one and Dias __________________.
Returned to Portugal without reaching India
Whose expedition around the Cape of Good Hope gave Portugal a lucrative spice trade with India?
Vasco de Gama
___________ and __________ divided the world between themselves using the Line of Demarcation.
How did Portugal and Spain divide the world between themselves?
Line of Demarcation approved by the pope
What was the Line of Demarcation?
Line running north and south down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
Portugal claimed ______ which lay west of the Line of Demarcation.
Spain claimed ________ which lay east of the Line of Demarcation.
What was a major reason for the decline of Portugal as a great power?
Inability to adequately defend and administer a vast empire
Who sailed for Spain and discovered the West Indies?
What are the islands in the Caribbean Sea?
After first discovering the island of San Salvador, Columbus went on to discover _____ (which he thought was China) and ________ (which he thought was Japan).
A later voyage led Columbus to _______ in S. America.
(T/F) Columbus knew he discovered a huge new land mass.
False (*he never found out)
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