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1st semester grammar review
Terms in this set (94)
names one person, place, thing, or idea
names more than one person, place, thing, or idea
can be ANY person, place, or thing. DO NOT capitalize. Ex: firefighter, town, book
a SPECIFIC person, place, or thing. ALWAYS capitalized. Ex: Chief Wilson, Kansas City, Where the Red Fern Grows
can be experienced with one of the five senses. You can see, touch, taste, smell, or hear these. Ex: lightning, thunder, ice cream
is a type of noun that is intangible. You cannot see, touch, taste, smell, or hear these. Ex: love, courage, knowledge
contains two or more words that join together to make a single noun.
closed form compound noun
two words meshed together to make one word. Ex: doghouse
hyphenated compound noun
two or more words are held together by hyphens. Ex: son-in-law
open form compound noun
Two separate words are considered one compound noun. Ex: Post Office
names groups of things and people. Ex: family, group, majority, team, class.
To avoid subject/verb agreement errors, these collective nouns need to be treated as singular nouns.
replaces a noun in a sentence
word that that the pronoun refers to or replaces
refer to a specific person or thing
singular personal pronoun
I, he, she, it, you
plural personal pronoun
we, they, them, theirs, you
demonstrate ownership; my, mine, our, ours, its, his, her, hers, their, theirs, your and yours
refers to things or people in general; somebody, someone, something, nobody, no one, nothing, everybody, everyone, everything, another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, one, other, neither, much, several, many, others, few and both
used to connect a phrase or clause to a noun or pronoun; that, when, which, whichever, whichsoever, who, whoever, whosoever, whom, whomever, whomsoever whose, whosesoever whatever, whatsoever
used with another noun or pronoun when something does something to itself. end in self and selves
Refer back to the subject; Jim made himself coffee.
used to emphasize a noun or pronoun. end in self or selves. can be removed without changing the meaning
Emphasize the subject; Jim made coffee for the king himself.
focus the attention on the nouns that they are replacing; Such, This, That, These, Those, None, Neither
used when asking a question. think interrogation; what, which, who, whom, whose
modify or describes verbs, adjectives, & other adverbs. Ex: loudly, very, rather
How? (Quickly) When? (Early) Where? (Here)
Adverbs answer these questions...
typically end in -ly; accidentally, always, angrily, anxiously,
awkwardly, badly, blindly, boastfully
adverbs of time
describe when things happen. Usually placed at beginning or end of sentence. Talk about past, present, future; Yesterday
When: Today, Tomorrow, Later, Last year, Now
How long: All morning, For hours, Since last week
How often: Frequently, Never, Sometimes, Often, Annually
adverbs of manner
describe how something is done or how something happens. Most adjectives end in -ly. Some do not; sadly, happily, angrily, cheerfully, fast, well, hard
adverbs of place
indicate where an action occurs. Placed after the verb or at end of sentence; inside, outside, above, below, here, there
adverbs of degree
explain the extent in which something is done or happens; too, very, almost, nearly, really, quite
adverbs or frequency
explain how often an action occurs. Usually placed before the main verb and after the auxiliary verb; always, often, sometimes, rarely, never
introduce a clause or group of words. Can replace a relative pronoun and preposition in a sentence to be less formal; where, when, why, how, whatever, wherever
places at the beginning of a sentence to ask a question; why, when, how, where
a word that represents an action, occurrence, or state o being
expresses an action that the subject of the sentence does. Ex: run, jump, bake, write
connects the subject of the sentence to a word that identifies or describes the subject. Ex: am, is, are, was, were, being, been, appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, and turn
auxiliary or helping verbs
accompanies another verb to help express its tense, mood, or voice. Forms of the words "be" and "have" are the most common helping verbs. Ex: am, is, are, have, has
fly, flew, flown
fall, fell, fallen
brake, broke, broken
single subjects take ______ verbs
plural subjects take ______ verbs
a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun Ex: sunny sky, golden hair
what kind? which one? how many?
what questions do adjectives answer?
a, an, the
used to compare 2 nouns or pronouns to each other. typically end in "-er" Ex: stronger, faster
used to compare or show superiority among 3 or more nouns or pronouns. typically end in "-est" Ex: strongest, fastest
describes or indicates the location, direction, or position of objects in a sentence
prepositions of time
used to show time; at, in, on
prepositions of place
used to show place or position; at, on, in
prepositions of movement
used to show movement; to, toward, across, over, under
a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with its objects.
object of preposition
a noun or nouns that the preposition refers to
a word that connects parts of sentence together
connect words, phrases, or clauses of equal ranks;
-connecting 2 items
-connecting items (3 or more) in a series
-connecting 2 main clause
when to use coordinating conjunctions
paired conjunction that links words, phrases, or clauses; both...and..., neither...nor..., either...or..., not...but..., not only...but also...
is what (or whom) the sentence is about
tells something about the subject
first find the ___verb___ and then make a question by asking "who?" or "what?" before it
how to find the subject
Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more). When all other words are removed, the _________ is left
is always the verb or verbs that links up with the subject.
a simple subject made up of more than one noun or pronoun
is more than one verb relating to the same subject
consists of the simple subject and all the words that modify it
consists of the simple predicate and all the words that modify it or complete its meaning
a) noun or pronoun
b) follows an action verb
c) receives the action of a verb
Can be found by asking Whom? or What? about an action verb
NEVER an adverb or the object of a preposition
a) noun or pronoun
b) tells to whom or to what of for whom or for what the action of the verb is done
MUST be a direct object that comes after
direct object; indirect object
you can have a __________ without an _________
action verb with direct object
action verbs without direct object or linking verbs
comes after a LINKING VERB and tells more about the subject
a) predicate nominatives
b) predicate adjectives
a) noun or pronoun
b) comes after a LINKING VERB
c) identifies the subject or refers to it
a) ADJECTIVE in the predicate of a sentence
b) comes after a LINKING VERB
c) describes the subject
Predicate nominatives and adjectives can be _________
group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that DOES NOT contain both a verb and its subject
group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that DOES contain both a verb and its subject
includes a preposition, a noun, or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and and modifiers of that object
a) adjective phrases
b) adverb phrases
A prepositional phrase used as an adjective is called an________
modifies a noun or pronoun
generally come after the words they modify and answer the same questions that single-word adjectives answer: 1) what kind?; 2) which one?; 3) how many?; 4) how much?
A prepositional phrases used as an adverb is called an________
will modify a verb, adjective, or other adverb
answers the same questions as a single-word adverb: 1) when?; 2) where?; 3) why?; 4) how often?; 5) how long?; 6) to what extent? (how much?)
is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it.
a grammatical construction in which two usually adjacent nouns having the same referent stand in the same syntactical relation to the rest of a sentence
Appositive phrases that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence (in other words, that don't change the meaning of the sentence) should:
Appositive phrases that are essential to the meaning of the sentence (if you took them out, the meaning of the sentence would change) should NOT:
is a word that is formed from a verb but is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb
is a verb that can be used as an adjective. Present end in -ing. Past end in -ed.
consists of a participle together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.
A participial phrase should be placed _________ to the word it modifies. Otherwise, the phrase may appear to modify another word, and the sentence may not make sense.
Some past participles do NOT end in: d or ed.
Ex. driven, frozen, broken, swept, caught, rung, hung
is a verb that ends in -ing BUT is used as a noun
Can be used as: the subject of a sentence, the direct or indirect object, the object of a preposition, a predicate nominative, or as appositives
is a gerund plus any complements and modifiers
Participles are adjectives and modify nouns. Gerunds are nouns and function as nouns in a sentence.
The difference between gerunds and participles is:
a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most begin with to.
consists of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
Don't mistake an infinitive phrase for
sometimes an adverb will come before the infinitive in the phrase. The adverb is part of the infinitive phrase. Ex. The child was told not to leave the playground area alone.
Just so you know:
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