American AIR Test Prep #1
Terms in this set (61)
Determined by: (1) qualification/reputation of author;(2) agreement with other sources?; (3) Is it biased?; (4) Is the info. accurate?
First-hand accounts of an event/era; eg., diary entries, eyewitness testimony, artifacts, autobiographies (usually reliable sources)
Accounts of an event written after-the-fact; eg., textbooks, magazine articles
Mass production of goods using machines in factories; began in Britain/late 1700s, in textiles; took off in America following the Civil War
development of cities; during 1800s, resulted from the movement of peoples to work in factories
Reform movement of the late 1800s; sought to rid US of negative effects of industrialization (exploitation of workers & child labor; monopolies; also sought to democratize US political system)
One of Reconstruction Amendments: abolished slavery
One of Reconstruction Amendments: defined birth-right citizenship; and prohibited states from denying due process of law or equal protection under the law.
One of Reconstruction Amendments: Suffrage could not be denied based on race (African American men could vote)
Progressive Amendment: Federal government could collect an progressive, income tax.
Progressive Amendment: Popular (direct) election of Senators - prior... selected by state legislatures
Progressive Amendment: Prohibition- alcohol is illegal; repealed by 21st!
Progressive Amendment: Women's suffrage
Business practice emerged in late 1800s, where a company was able to eliminate competition because of laissez-faire policies. (Rockefeller, Carnegie, JP Morgan)
Late 1800s- Organizations established to fight for rights and improved working conditions (Knights of Labor- 1st)
Late 1800s- Movement of African Americans to northern cities to escape Jim Crow/sharecropping & for economic opportunities (jobs).
Movement of Eastern Europeans into the US in search of jobs and political freedom. (to enter into a country is called....)
Late 1800s- prejudice/hatred toward Eastern Europeans, Catholics, Jews and Asians (some felt they threatened "fabric" of America and were competition for jobs)
Following the Civil War, federal government actions to unite the nation and enforce rights for Freedmen; ended with the Corrupt Bargain of 1876.
Nickname for segregation laws in south; examples- separate schools, public transportation, neighborhoods, private restaurants/stores... segregation was cradle to grave...
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896, Supreme Court decision allowing Jim Crow (separate but equal doesn't violate the 14th Amendment).
Late 1800s- European powers competed to colonize Africa & Asia for resources to fuel industrialization; In US this meant "extending our influence" in Latin America and Asia. Examples- Roosevelt Corollary & Spanish American War
Causes of World War One (1914-1919)
MAIN: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, & Nationalism
Reasons US entered WWI
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (sinking of Lusitania) & Zimmerman Note
Treaty of Versailles
Peace Settlement ending World War One- punished Germany for the war...
League of Nations
International peacekeeping organization established in the Treaty of Versailles- US never became a member
U.S. foreign policy following WWI- wanted to stay of out Europe's business!
Era of great economic prosperity; women's liberation from traditional roles; prohibition and organized crime
Buying Stocks on the Margin/ Speculation in the market
Causes of the Stock Market Crash
Most severe economic downturn in US history; 1/4 out of work; caused by stock market crash; downturn in farming industry; and tariff wars.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's policies & programs enacted to provide relief, recovery and reform during the Great Depression. (public works projects, restoring confidence in banking, and laws to prevent another catastrophe).
1920s- Fear of the spread of Communism into the U.S. following the Russian Revolution (Soviet Union).
Causes of World War Two
-Nazi aggression in Europe seeking revenge for Treaty of Versailles
-Japanese aggression in Asia for Pacific domination
Surprise attack on the U.S. - December 7, 1941 (mad at us for embargo and freezing funds in US banks)
US' military aid (arms/equipment) to Great Britain & Soviet Union to help fight off Nazi war machine. (prior to US's declaration of war)
During WWII, efforts on the home front to provide aid and support for the US military included limits on food, clothing, gas, and other resources.
Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Truman's decisive action to end WWII in the Pacific- Hint! Manhattan Project.
Not a battlefield war- fought between the US (democracy/capitalism) v. Soviet Union (Communism) through proxy wars, space race, propaganda, and sporting events. (At end of WWII-1991)
US foreign policy during the Cold War (keep it to where it already existed)
Reason the US engaged in the proxy wars of Korea and Vietnam.
Military Alliance between western democracies established during the Cold War (collective security)
Military Alliance of Soviet Union and satellites as a counter to NATO
US's attempt to prevent the spread of communism into western Europe following WWII (provide money to help them rebuild).
Mao Ze Dong
Revolutionary figure who led the Communist Revolution in China- 1949.
A second red scare in the US; an overzealous Senator accused several US government officials of being communists- bogus!!!
Proxy war of the Cold War- US defended the south from the north; an unpopular war; not getting anywhere, so we left- and south fell to communism anyway.
Fall of the Berlin Wall
Event which marked the end of the Cold War, 1989.
Protest tactic during Civil Rights Movement- examples included Rosa Parks/Montgomery Bus Boycotts & Sit-Ins.
Efforts to register African Americans to vote in the South.
United Farm Workers (UFW)
Group organized by Cesar Chavez to fight for migrant worker's rights during the 1970s
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Women's liberation movement group which fought to eliminate the glass ceiling and for an Equal Rights Amendment.
Political view focused on a limited role of government in the economy; however, favoring laws/policies to maintain traditional family values- Presidents Reagan, Bush's (Republicans)
Political view focused on a strong federal government to help solve problems such as racial discrimination, gender inequality, and income disparity- Presidents Carter, Clinton, and Obama (Democrats)
Declaration of Independence
A founding document: Break up letter to the king, using Enlightenment philosopher John Locke's theory of the social contract and natural rights.
85 Essays written by Federalists in defense of the proposed Constitution.
US governing document based on popular sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism.
Add a state land plan- organized the Ohio Valley for settlement.
Articles of Conferation
1st Constitution for the United States; national government was too weak- led to the Constitutional Convention.
1965 Immigration Act
Ended the quota system , which limited the number of immigrants allowed into the US based on country of origin (considered discriminatory)
belligerent support of one's country
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
1.2 Historic Documents
7.2 The Civil Rights Movement
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7.3 Migration and Immigration