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144 terms

BIO 104 - FINAL

all test questions/answers
STUDY
PLAY
Pablo and Johanna have to do a yearlong study for their biology course. After some discussion, they decide to try comparing their dogs and the diet that they feed them. Each has a dog from the pound, and both dogs are less than one year old. Pablo feeds his shepherd-mix dog a special diet of wet and dry foods from the local vet, while Johanna uses generic dry kibble from the supermarket for her bulldog. They want to see which diet results in bigger, healthier, faster-growing dogs. The independent variable in this study will be ________.
the type of food the dogs receive
The cumulative total and kind of living things on Earth is ________.
its environment
According to Edward O. Wilson, biodiversity ________.
is a nonrenewable resource because extinction is irreversible
Ecology is ________.
the study of organisms and their interactions with each other and with the environment
You have read about the mistakes made on Easter Island. On Tikopia, another small island, the people acted in other ways. When they realized that the pigs they had imported were damaging the environment, they killed them all. They had to have permission from a chief to fish, which prevented overfishing. They practiced contraception. These all indicate that ________.
they truly practiced sustainability
Ecosystem services ________.
economically valuable services provided by natural systems
Geothermal energy, wind and solar radiation are all examples of ________.
renewable environmental factors
Pablo and Johanna have to do a yearlong study for their biology course. After some discussion, they decide to try comparing their dogs and the diet that they feed them. Each has a dog from the pound, and both dogs are less than one year old. Pablo feeds his shepherd-mix dog a special diet of wet and dry foods from the local vet, while Johanna uses generic dry kibble from the supermarket for her bulldog. They want to see which diet results in bigger, healthier, faster-growing dogs. According to the information given, one dependent variable in this study will be ________.
how much the dogs grow
Which of the following is the best description of a sustainable system component?
one which is in balance with the system as a whole
Pesticide use ________.
may be a necessary part of modern technological agriculture with monocultures
How many citizens of Mexico does it take to equal the ecological footprint of the average citizen of the United States?
It takes nearly three Mexican citizens to equal the ecological footprint of the average U.S. citizen.
An experiment ________.
is an activity designed to test the validity of a hypothesis
The process by which several researchers review another researcher's manuscript prior to publication to ensure research quality is referred to as ________.
peer review
The average footprint per person has increased from 2.2 to 2.7 since 2008, and the footprints of many developing nations, such as India and China, have also increased. This means that ________.
our collective lifestyle is even more unsustainable than before
In general, natural resources ________.
should be used efficiently and conserved
Ruben has a new puppy and wants to feed it the best possible food. He decides on an experiment where he will feed it the very best canned food plus a dietary supplement of vitamins recommended by a veterinarian. Which of the following best describes Ruben's project?
This is not an experiment, as there are no controls or replicates.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Environmental science only encompasses one type of science.
A paradigm ________.
is a dominant world view in science
The greenhouse effect involves warming of Earth's surface and the ________.
troposphere
Earth's climate ________.
is changing as a result of natural and human processes
In legislation, the precautionary principle states that ________.
lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used to postpone measures to prevent major environmental degradation
The Kyoto Protocol ________.
was intended to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels lower than those of 1990
Keeling's reports from Mauna Loa demonstrated ________.
an increase in tropospheric CO2 from the 1950s to present
_________ are compounds that contribute to short-term atmospheric cooling.
Sulfate aerosols
Carbon-based fuels from lithospheric (in rock) reservoirs ________.
have been slowly sequestered over many millions of years
Milankovitch cycles ________.
are changes in Earth's rotation and orbit around the sun that may trigger climate variation
Growing rice results in the release of ________ into the atmosphere.
methane
Carbon dioxide is ________.
the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas produced in the United States
Recent research indicates that the variation in solar output _______.
is less than any of the anthropogenic factors affecting climate change
Recent evidence from polar ice core analysis shows that, until now, carbon dioxide levels have never exceeded ________ ppm in the last several hundred thousand years.
300
The largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the United States is ________, followed by ________.
electricity generation; transportation
Hydrogen fuel cells, biodiesel, and long-term electric batteries are potential solutions to ______.
reducing carbon emissions from cars and trucks
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ________.
is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies
The use of public transportation is ________.
the best option for decreasing the use of fossil fuels for transportation
Hydroelectric power generation ________.
is an alternative to fossil fuels that produces fewer greenhouse gases
Which of the following are market mechanisms for addressing climate change?
cap-and-trade and carbon offsets
The atmosphere around Earth can cause global warming because ________.
molecules in the atmosphere are warmed by radiation from Earth and retain that heat
Rainforest is NOT found on which of these continents?
Europe
How many sites did Ziska (think G11) compare?
3
How many acres are we losing every second in the Rainforest?
1.5
Why does oil stay for longer periods of time in the arctic?
because of low temperatures
Wildlife populations in the Tropics have decreased ________ over the past 48 years.
50%
Which of the following is NOT a layer in a tropical rainforest?
The Soil Layer
Degradation of the Rainforest includes...
Deforestation, Pollution, Agricultural Expansion, Industrial Projects
Which of these was not one of the Five Steps to Saving the Rainforest?
Enforce
What is the name of the weed that in the 19th century had beauty and utility and now is seen as one of one of the most troublesome weeds of our urban habitats?
Ailanthus Tree
What area did the weeds grow best in:
The Baltimore site
An ecological hotspot is a region that is especially rich with biological diversity. Based on the information in this chapter, which of the following areas qualifies as an ecological hotspot?
Costa Rica
Extinction is ________.
a natural process
Unregulated populations tend to increase by ________.
exponential growth
A number of coyotes move into an area and begin to eat a population of small harvest mice. After several years, the harvest mice are much speedier runners than before the coyotes came. This is an example of ________.
directional selection
The carrying capacity is _______.
the maximum population size that a given environment can sustain
Which of the following populations would be most vulnerable to extinction?
a small, endemic population
An example of a density-independent factor would be ________.
cold weather causing the lake to freeze
Which of the following gives the major factors that determine a population's growth rate?
growth rate, death rate, emigration, immigration
Which of the following would be the most effective action for protecting biodiversity?
practice conservation, practice ecotourism
practice preservation
A _____ is defined as the living and nonliving elements around an organism.
habitat
In England, dogs with large, floppy ears called hounds came into existence. These dogs were favored for hunting because of their excellent sense of smell. Which statement most accurately represents the process that produced such dog breeds from the wild-type (feral) dog?
Humans noticed dogs with large, floppy ears and a great sense of smell and wanted more like them. They then bred them with similar dogs over many generations.
In a population of field mice, an example of an adaptive trait that could help with reproduction and/or survival would be ________.
having a bit more fur to withstand cold weather
Which of the following is considered a community?
several interacting species living in the same area
Two organisms live in the same geographical area, are very similar genetically, and can breed with each other successfully. Which of the following statements is correct?
these organisms are member of the same species.
Age pyramids, used to show the age structure of a population, generally ________.
indicate the relative numbers (frequency, or percentage) of individuals in each age class
The human population is approximately ________.
7 billion
Fertility rates decline as _______.
there is an increase in family planning and birth control
Life expectancy in parts of southern Africa ________.
has fallen dramatically since 1990
Helmut Haberl and colleagues have compiled data on ________ as a measure of the human population's growth on earth's natural resources and ecosystem services.
consumption of net primary productivity
As a result of China's one child policy, its age structure in the next 40 to 50 years will look like _______.
an inverted pyramid
According to the IPAT model, technology that enhances our acquisition of minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and ocean fish ________.
increases environmental impact
A population which is not growing will have a TFR of ________.
less than 1.0
Why are diseases such as AIDS, which reduce population density, undermining the ability of developing countries to make the transition to more modern, industrialized societies?
They are causing demographic fatigue
Not surprisingly, the nation with the highest rate of contraceptive use (90%) is ________.
China
Which of the following are the three principal effects of a human population that determine its impact on the environment (the IPAT model)?
population, affluence, technology
Population growth is at the root of many serious environmental problems. From the ancient Babylonians thousands of years ago, to Thomas Malthus hundreds of years ago, to present day neo-Malthusians, humans seem to possess an awareness of Earth's limitations in the face of growing populations. Today, our ability to accurately quantify, monitor, and control population growth is very sophisticated. We can measure growth and make predictions about world growth with mathematical and computer models. Mesopotamian, Mayan, Easter Island, and 1930s U.S. midwest prairie societies all experienced "crashes" because they ________.
abused and overused their natural resources
The maximum population size that a given environment can sustain is the _______.
carrying capacity
America's age structure diagram ________.
reflects an aging population
Studies have shown that family planning programs _______.
have been very effective at lowering TFR and population growth rates
Which of the following statements about Earth's carrying capacity for humans is true?
Humans have a carrying capacity like all other species, although we can develop technology to help us overcome some of the limits that we would otherwise face.
The richest one-fifth of the world's population possess approximately ________ times the income of the poorest one-fifth, and the richest one-fifth use over 86% of the world's resources.
80
How many different species of sharks are there?
360
What is the estimated population of the U.S.?
315,000,000
How many sharks are being killed, by the million, worldwide each year by humans?
100
What percent of water is fit for human consumption?
Less than 1%
What is the current human population growth rate per year?
1.30%
How many more people are there projected to be in 2025?
1 million
How many Nile rivers would it take to sustain the population in 2025?
20
What percent of domestic water is lost before it reaches households?
40%
What is being done in 2012 to monitor the Asian Carp population?
Random electroshock sites and netting
What percent of Minnesota lakes are infested with zebra mussels?
Less than 1%
What are the consequences of human over population?
Land abuse and loss of productivity, Inability to grow enough food leading to hunger and famine, Harm to wild nature including extinction of species
Over the last 300 years, how much of the natural habitat has been converted for agricultural purposes?
45%
How do zebra mussels get their nutrients?
Filter feeding
What is population size?
The number of individual organisms present at a given time.
Up to how many eggs a year can a female zebra mussel produce?
1,000,000
What did the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 accomplish?
Gives priority to family reunification, Gives asylum to refugees, Allowed 170,000 people into the country.
Data indicate that the present rate of freshwater consumption in most developed countries is ________.
unsustainable
Which of the following is a storage for the hydrologic cycle?
pond
The "blue-baby" syndrome that suffocates infants is a consequence of excess ________ in the water supply.
nitrates
You want to maintain a healthy pond at your school site. Last year another pond became eutrophic; to avoid that, you want to ________.
avoid increasing phosphorus runoff into the limnetic zone
The ______________ is the world's largest known aquifer.
Ogallala aquifer
The pair of mallard ducks in the figure, eat floating plants such as duckweed, seeds of shoreline plants, and very small organisms at or near the surface. They would be most affected by any change to the ________.
littoral or limnetic zones
An artesian aquifer occurs when ________.
a water���bearing layer is trapped between two layers that are less permeable
Why was the irrigation of Soviet cotton farming operations a problem?
It drained the Aral Sea and increased the salt content of soils.
The fish in the lake at the local park are dying. A professor from the local college comes to investigate, and first she measures the dissolved oxygen. She wants to check the ________.
possibility of eutrophication
Frog eggs are usually attached to vegetation or rocks near the surface of a pond. Tadpoles can use essentially all areas of a shallow pond, or the top few feet of a deeper pond or lake. Adult frogs can live on land or in the water. A frog's life would be least likely to be disrupted by a change in the ________.
the benthic zone
Sinkholes result from ________.
overconsumption of water from aquifers weakening the substrate
Which of the following is one of the major pollutants of groundwater?
fertilizers from agricultural fields
Only about 2.5% of all the water on our planet is freshwater. However, ________.
most of this is far from where humans live
A _________ is any obstruction placed in a river or stream to block flow.
dam
A recent study has revealed that chlorinated hydrocarbons, gasoline and other volatile organic compounds (VOC's) have become significant pollutants in ________ from ________.
ground water / leaking storage tanks
Recent research that analyzed the content of commercial bottled water indicates that ________.
bottled water is no safer or purer than most samples of tap water
Which of the following is a flow in the hydrologic cycle?
percolation
On a September day in 1999, folks began to notice that Lake Jackson in the panhandle region of northern Florida was shrinking. Within a few days, it was almost gone. A sinkhole had opened beneath the lake and drained it, along with all of the fish and alligators. As aquifers lose water, their substrates can become weaker and less capable of supporting overlying strata and any human structures built upon them. In such cases, the land surface above may subside. Sometimes subsidence can occur locally and suddenly, in the form of sinkholes, areas where the ground gives way with little warning. Once the ground subsides, soil becomes compacted, losing the porosity that enabled it to hold water. Recharging a depleted aquifer may therefore become more difficult. Sinkholes can occur when ________.
excessive water use lowers a water table and weakens the substrate
Dam removal in this country ________.
will probably continue because the environmental impacts of dams are reviewed periodically
Tree-dominated ecosystems in tropical and subtropical latitudes that consists of gently sloping sandy and silty coastal areas are ________________.
mangrove forests
Salt marshes ________.
occur mostly in temperate areas
Upwelling ________.
of ocean water results in areas of high primary productivity at the ocean surface
El Nino and La Nina ________.
produce changes of opposite direction in global temperature and precipitation patterns
What are groundfish?
various species that live in benthic habitats, such as scallops
Kelp are ________.
large algae that protect shorelines from erosion, and supply shelter and food for invertebrates and fish
Hypoxia and eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay may in part be attributed to ________.
harvesting of oysters that previously would have filtered nutrients
Ocean zone where water is dense and sluggish and not affected by winds, sunlight, and daily temperature fluctuations is the __________________.
deep zone
___________ is a fishing technique for capturing groundfish.
Bottom trawling
Downwelling ________.
occurs in areas where surface currents converge, or flow toward each other
Which of the following is true?
Polar areas lack a pycnocline.
Water in the surface zone of the ocean is, for the most part ________.
well mixed
Diets that incorporate seafood can be healthy for us and kind to the environment. However, all seafood is not comparable, so choice is important. Mollusks such as oysters, mussels, and scallops are good choices if they are grown suspended in water, because dredging damages seafloors. On fish farms, this involves growing organisms on nets, trays, or racks. Because mollusks are filter feeders, farmed mollusks can actually improve water quality. Although shrimp are also filter feeders, shrimp farms, especially in Southeast Asia, are often built in coastal areas where mangroves are destroyed to make room for farms. As long as excessive quantities of grain or wild fish are not used for feed, aquaculture can be a very good alternative to open ocean fishing because it can reduce by���catch, the pressure on wild stocks, and the fossil fuel use required at sea. Exceptions are farms that raise transgenic salmon, which often spread disease, or where the farmed fish become oversized and outcompete the native fish. These salmon consume massive quantities of fish feed, so better fish choices are farm���raised talapia, striped bass, and sturgeon. In the wild, Pacific halibut, salmon, sablefish, and sardines are good choices because they are fished selectively. Wild grouper, shark, swordfish, tuna, and orange roughy must be consumed cautiously because water they inhabit usually contains high levels of mercury, PCBs, dioxins, or pesticides, which can biomagnify in food webs and bioaccumulate in fish tissues. Wild Chilean sea bass, Atlantic cod, and Atlantic halibut should be avoided because their populations have been overfished. Orange roughy have been overfished, reproduce slowly, and are fished with bottom���trawlers that frequently damage bottom habitat. The main environmental problem caused by harvesting bottom-dwelling mollusks is ________.
habitat destruction
Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine food webs is ________.
over harvesting
Diets that incorporate seafood can be healthy for us and kind to the environment. However, all seafood is not comparable, so choice is important. Mollusks such as oysters, mussels, and scallops are good choices if they are grown suspended in water, because dredging damages seafloors. On fish farms, this involves growing organisms on nets, trays, or racks. Because mollusks are filter feeders, farmed mollusks can actually improve water quality. Although shrimp are also filter feeders, shrimp farms, especially in Southeast Asia, are often built in coastal areas where mangroves are destroyed to make room for farms. As long as excessive quantities of grain or wild fish are not used for feed, aquaculture can be a very good alternative to open ocean fishing because it can reduce by���catch, the pressure on wild stocks, and the fossil fuel use required at sea. Exceptions are farms that raise transgenic salmon, which often spread disease, or where the farmed fish become oversized and outcompete the native fish. These salmon consume massive quantities of fish feed, so better fish choices are farm���raised talapia, striped bass, and sturgeon. In the wild, Pacific halibut, salmon, sablefish, and sardines are good choices because they are fished selectively. Wild grouper, shark, swordfish, tuna, and orange roughy must be consumed cautiously because water they inhabit usually contains high levels of mercury, PCBs, dioxins, or pesticides, which can biomagnify in food webs and bioaccumulate in fish tissues. Wild Chilean sea bass, Atlantic cod, and Atlantic halibut should be avoided because their populations have been overfished. Orange roughy have been overfished, reproduce slowly, and are fished with bottom���trawlers that frequently damage bottom habitat. Why are marine reserves ecologically better than fish farms?
They restore damaged habitats and allow overfished species to reproduce and spread.
Diets that incorporate seafood can be healthy for us and kind to the environment. However, all seafood is not comparable, so choice is important. Mollusks such as oysters, mussels, and scallops are good choices if they are grown suspended in water, because dredging damages seafloors. On fish farms, this involves growing organisms on nets, trays, or racks. Because mollusks are filter feeders, farmed mollusks can actually improve water quality. Although shrimp are also filter feeders, shrimp farms, especially in Southeast Asia, are often built in coastal areas where mangroves are destroyed to make room for farms. As long as excessive quantities of grain or wild fish are not used for feed, aquaculture can be a very good alternative to open ocean fishing because it can reduce by���catch, the pressure on wild stocks, and the fossil fuel use required at sea. Exceptions are farms that raise transgenic salmon, which often spread disease, or where the farmed fish become oversized and outcompete the native fish. These salmon consume massive quantities of fish feed, so better fish choices are farm���raised talapia, striped bass, and sturgeon. In the wild, Pacific halibut, salmon, sablefish, and sardines are good choices because they are fished selectively. Wild grouper, shark, swordfish, tuna, and orange roughy must be consumed cautiously because water they inhabit usually contains high levels of mercury, PCBs, dioxins, or pesticides, which can biomagnify in food webs and bioaccumulate in fish tissues. Wild Chilean sea bass, Atlantic cod, and Atlantic halibut should be avoided because their populations have been overfished. Orange roughy have been overfished, reproduce slowly, and are fished with bottom���trawlers that frequently damage bottom habitat. Which of the following should be avoided because of PCB contamination?
tuna
Hydrothermal vents ________.
provide nutrients to symbiotic bacteria that support ecosystems at the ocean floor
Which of the following is a problem associated with driftnet fishing?
bycatch (collateral damage)
Sea otters act as keystone species in the ________.
kelp forests
What percentage of the Earth's water is natural freshwater?
2.50%
Through power shortfalls, masses of people could experience prolonged __________.
Brown Outs
What do we need to be able to see the water weather plan more clearly?
Build in steps
What is the harm with zebra mussels?
Harms boating and industry, harms native species, harms water recreation
How many gallons of water did Adena Springs Ranch propose to use?
13 million / day
What can we do to help save the coral reefs?
recycle, carpool, reduce overfishing
How many lakes are affected by zebra mussels?
649
What is the biggest contributor to oil pollution?
small non-point sources
What are the 3 layers of the ocean?
Photic zone, Pelagic, Benthic
What is on type of marine pollution
Oil
What was John Mathews take on dams around the world?
Flawed
The reefs are home to what percentage of marine fish?
25%