Terms in this set (22)
What is soil made of?
Mineral particles, organic material, water, and air
What is soil composition dependent on?
Climate, parent rock material, land topography, biome/ecosystem of region and age of region.
What is the composition of soil?
Mineral composition, organic content, pH, and moisture.
How are soils classified?
Horizons and layers
How are horizons and layers formed?
Through the movement of water through soil (transporting soluble minerals to lower layers)
Provides the skeleton of the soil and can be derived from the underlying rock.
Examples of insoluble rock particles
gravel, sand, silt, clay and chalk
Example of soluble rock particles
mineral salts, compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, magnesium
Plant and animal matter in the process of decomposition that gives the soil a dark color.
Water seeping down from precipitation or moving from underground sources by capillary action.
Mainly oxygen and nitrogen. Well aerated soils provide oxygen for respiration of soil organisms.
Soil invertebrates, microorganism, and large animals.
Upper layer; layer where humus builds up.
Layer where soluble minerals and organic matter is deposited from the upper layer.
Layer is mainly unaltered rock from which the soil forms
Many soils also contain upper most layer of newly added organic material such as leaf litter.
Humus that contains a high quality of alkaline mineral.
Affects the moisture content of the soil
Add dead organic material, which is broken down by soil organisms
Influences the stability of soils
Either from directly below soil, bedrock, or may have originated through transport processes (riverbed load, wind blown or glacial moraines)
alters soil (allows for weathering of mineral particles)