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ANSC 201 Final
Terms in this set (97)
Current total economic impact of the horse industry
$101.5 billion annually
Greatest economic impact
Most common use of the horse
Breeds that have the greatest economic impact
Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred
How many horses live in the United States?
kills hair follicles, hair does not grow back
kills hair color pigment, hair grows back white
What do all horses have that have raced?
Base coats that have black points
brown, bay, black
Base coats that do not have black points
chesnut, sorrel, red
What two base colors obscure the action of all other colors?
Out of white and grey, which color is expressed dominantly?
Light horse breeds
arabian, thoroughbred, standardbred, quarter horse
Heavy horse breeds
clydesdale, shire, draft
What are the foundation breeds for all light breeds?
Largest breed registry in the world
Four criteria used to evaluate conformation
balance, structure, muscling, quality
Out of the four criteria used to evaluate conformation, which is the most important?
What are the four natural gaits of the horse?
walk, trot, lope/canter, gallop
How many beats are in the walk?
How many beats are in the trot?
How many beats are in the canter?
How many beats are in the gallop?
Horses rely on __________ responses because they are _________ animals
fight or flight; prey
horse sees the same image with both eyes
horse sees different images with each eye
Where is a horse's point of balance?
What is the learning sequence?
stimulus, response, reinforcement
What is the learning sequence contingent upon?
timing, appropriateness, consistency
Out of the three types of fitnesses, which develops fastest?
Which develops slowest?
What is TPR?
temperature, pulse (heart) rate, respiration rate
abdominal pain caused by various reason
What is the #1 killer of horses?
thrashing, trying to roll, biting or kicking at flank, not eating or defecating
symptoms of colic
Main reason for vices such as wood chewing
low forage in diet, boredom, lack of exercise
deviation of structure that does not affect usefulness
Dull hair coat
signs of parasite infection
Most important parasites in terms of health risks
small strongyles, roundworms (ascarids), tapeworms
flattened, segmented, mite is the intermediate host, cause severe inflammation at attachment site
observed in manure of infected horses, horses ingest eggs, can block small intestine, cause colic, primarily a problem in young horses
largest and most dangerous family of worms, cause anemia, blockage of intestinal blood supply
invade large intestine and remain dormant
leave intestine and migrate through tissue, most harmful, arterial damage
deposit eggs on horse's hair, oral lesions, lesions in stomach, pass into manure in late spring
most damage to foals, passed through mother's milk, causes diarrhea 10-14 days after birth, possible cause of foal scours
primarily in donkeys
cause tail rubbing due to itchy anus where eggs deposit
Are all parasites detrimental?
Largest parasite that adult horses are not immune to
Infectious bacterial diseases
strangles, tetanus, pigeon fever
What does a coggins test diagnose?
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
Digestion in a horse's foregut
Digestion in a horse's hindgut
What type of horses need more fat in their diet?
What type of horses need more protein in their diet?
Water soluble vitamins
B & C
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamins synthesized in the hind gut of the horse
B & K
Do we feed by weight or volume?
How much forage should a horse consume daily
at least 1% in body weight if not fed grain
How much of their body weight TOTAL do horses consume daily
can proceed without oxygen
Type of horse better suited for aerobic exercise
type of horse better suited for anaerobic exercise
short distance, sprinters
Glycogen in the muscle
Mitochondria in the muscle
when lactate threshold is met, anaerobic threshold begins
Horses are ______ breeders
What season do horses typically breed in?
winter/fall, light dependent
Structures on ovaries
corpus luteum, follicle
Corpus luteum produces...
Function of progesterone
Function of estrogen
causes heat like behavior (estrus)
Where is GnRH produced
Where are LH and FSH produced
Function of prostaglandin
regresses the corpus luteum
Where is prostaglandin produced
Function of oxytocin
uterine contraction, expels placenta
Hormone that initiates spermatogenesis in stallions
Gestation length of mare
How many stages are in parturition?
Signs of parturition
relaxed vulva, waxing
restlessness, tail swishing, looking at flank, frequent small bowel movements, stretching to urinate, colic symptoms
Stage 1 parturition
water breaks, labor lasts 20-30 minutes
Stage 2 parturition
placenta passes, should be less than 3 hours after foaling
Stage 3 parturition
private treaty, production sales, public auctions, consignment sales
types of sales
Private treaty sales
a facility putting on a sale for a herd of animals
releasing custody of horse to someone else for them to sell
Out of the 4 types of sales, which has the highest averages?
less likely to spread disease, decreases stallion use, wider genetics, no need to transport horses, extend life of sperm
Advantages of AI
more natural, no external costs or labor
advantages of live cover
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