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contrast sperm delivery in seedless plants with sperm delivery in seed plants
seedless plants have flagellated sperm that must swim through a film of water over a few centimeters; seeded plants have pollen grains which can travel long distances with pollinators, animal delivery, and wind
what features not present in seedless plants have contributed to the enormous success of seed plants on land?
seeds can be dormant for years until under the right conditions, have a stored supply of energy, and can be transported long distances
does the hypothesis that gymnosperms and angiosperms are sister clades imply that they originated at the same time?
no, gymnosperms appeared around 305 million years ago and were slowly replaced starting around 65 million years ago (end of the mesozoic era)
identify key structures of angiosperms
the main structures are flowers (specialized shoot with floral organs such as sepals, petals, stamen, pistil) and fruits (mature, thickened ovary that protects the seeds); typically have male (produced by microspores from anther) and female (produced by megaspore within ovule's ovary) gametophytes
describe the angiosperm life cycle
pollen grain lands on stigma and pollen tube grows to the ovary, entering the ovule through the micropyle; double fertilization (sperm fuses with egg to produce zygote 2N, sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei to form endosperm 3N)
compare and contrast a pine cone and a flower in terms of structure and function
both have sporophylls, which are modified spore-producing leaves; pine trees have separate pollen cones and ovulate cones while in flowers pollen grains are produced by anthers of stamens and the ovules are within the ovaries of carpels (they produce both pollen and ovules)
what are five derived traits of seed plants
reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules, pollen, seeds
where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium? a) in the style of a flower, b) inside the tip of a pollen tube, c) enclosed in the stigma of a flower, d) within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower, e) packed into pollen sacs within the anthers found on a stamen
within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower
anabolic vs. catabolic pathways
anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones, catabolic pathways release energy by breaking complex molecules into simpler ones
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but transformed and transferred
second law of thermodynamics
some energy is unusable during every energy transfer/transformation (e.g.) heat, which increases universal entropy
endergonic vs. exergonic reaction
endergonic absorbs free energy from its surroundings (energy required, nonspontaneous), exergonic proceeds with net release of free energy (energy released, spontaneous)
is cellular respiration endergonic or exergonic? spontaneous or not? what happens to energy released from glucose?
cellular respiration is exergonic (spontaneous), energy released from glucose is used to do work in the cell or lost as heat
how does ATP typically transfer energy from exergonic to endergonic reactions in the cell?
transfer energy to endergonic processes by phosphorylating (adding phosphate groups) to other molecules (exergonic processes phosphorylate ADP to regenerate ATP).
explain how highly ordered structure of a cell does not conflict with the second law of thermodynamics.
entropy may decrease in an organism, but universe's total entropy increases
describe the ATP cycle: how is ATP used and regenerated in a cell?
used to drive endergonic reactions, regenerated by phosphorylation of ADP
what is a redox reaction?
The transfer of electrons during chemical reactions releases energy stored in organic molecules
what is oxidation and reduction?
Oxidation: substance loses electrons
Reduction: substance gains electrons
what are the stages of cellular respiration?
glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis
compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration
aerobic respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen while anaerobic respiration does not; both refer to cellular breakdown of glucose
describe the difference between the two processes in cellular respiration that produce ATP: oxidative phosphorylation and substrate-level phosphorylation
energy released from redox reactions in an electron transport chain is used to produce ATP vs. one enzyme directly transfers a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate
what is the source of energy for the formation of ATP and NADH in glycolysis? what molecular products indicate the complete oxidation of glucose during cellular respiration?
glucose is the source of energy; the release of 6 CO2 molecules indicates complete oxidation
briefly explain the mechanism by which ATP synthase produces ATP. list three locations in which ATP synthase are found.
ATP synthase uses exergonic flow of H+ to drive phosphorylation of ATP
which process yields more ATP, fermentation or anaerobic respiration? explain.
anaerobic respiration yields more ATP because fermentation yields only 2 from substrate-level phosphorylation
the immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the: a) oxidation of glucose and other organic compounds, b) flow of electrons down electron transport chain, c) affinity of oxygen for electrons, d) H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase, e) transfer of phosphate to ADP
d) H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase
which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule? a) the citric acid cycle, b) the electron transport chain, c) glycolysis, d) synthesis of acetyl CoA from pyruvate, e) reduction of pyruvate to lactate
the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is: a) oxygen, b) water, c) NAD+, d) pyruvate, e) ADP
compare linear and cyclic electron flow
linear electron flow produces ATP, oxygen (from water), and NADPH (from NADP+); cyclic electron flow produces only ATP
describe the structure and components of chloroplasts
have an envelope of 2 membranes surrounding a dense fluid called the stroma, mainly found in thylakoids of mesophyll cells (interior leaf tissue)
describe the light reactions stage of photosynthesis
splits H2O, releases CO2, reduces electron acceptor NADP+ to NADPH, generates ATP from ADP from phosphorylation
describe the Calvin cycle stage of photosynthesis
sugar forms in stroma from CO2 using ATP and NADPH, cycle begins with carbon fixation
what are the functions and complexes of the photosystems?
PS2 (680nm wavelength) with P680 reaction complex; PSI (700nm wavelength) with P700 reaction complex
compare and describe the roles of CO2 and H2O in respiration and photosynthesis
in photosynthesis CO2 and H2O are the reactants to produce oxygen and in cellular respiration CO2 and H2O are the products
which of the following does not occur during the calvin cycle: a) carbon fixation, b) oxidation of NADPH, c) release of oxygen, d) regeneration of the CO2 acceptor, e) consumption of ATP
b) oxidation of NADPH
the light reactions of photosynthesis supply the calvin cycle with: a) light energy, b) CO2 and ATP, c) H2O and NADPH, d) ATP and NADPH, e) sugar and O2
d) ATP and NADPH
what are the five stages of mitosis and their function?
prophase (chromosomes condense), prometaphase (spindle microtubules attach to chromosome kinetochores), metaphase (chromosomes line up at center of cell), anaphase (cohesins are cleaved by separase), telophase (nuclear membranes form around the 2 sets of chromosomes)
what is the structure and function of the mitotic spindle?
made of microtubules that control chromosome movement during mitosis
differentiate between these terms: chromosome, chromatin, chromatid
chromosomes are pieces of DNA composed of DNA and proteins known as chromatin, chromatids are identical pieces of DNA held together by centromere
what is the difference between iteroparity and semelparity?
organisms reproducing several times throughout lifetime rather than once and then dying
what is the difference between batesian and müllerian mimicry?
harmless species mimics a harmful one; multiple unpalatable species evolve to mimic each other
identify the four main threats to biodiversity
habitat loss, introduced species, overharvesting, climate change
give 3 examples of ecosystem services for humans
purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, nutrient cycling, moderation of weather extremes
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