Terms in this set (63)
solid layer made up of the mantle and the crust
soft or weak layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
transfer of heat by direct contact
transfer of heat within a fluid
transfer of heat through empty space
the name that Wegener gave to the supercontinent; it means "all lands"
Sea floor spreading
the process that is continually adding new material to the ocean floor
the process which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle
the theory that states that pieces of the earth's lithosphere are in constant, slow motion and are driven by concection currents
a place where 2 plates slip past each other
a place where 2 plates move apart or diverge
a place where 2 plates come together or converge
caves and rock samples
what 2 types of direct evidence do geolgists use?
what type of indirect evidence do geologists use?
crust, lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, inner core, outer core
what are the 6 layers of the earth called?
temperature, pressure, density
what 3 things increase as you travel farther into the earth?
the inner core is solid or liquid?
the outer core is a solid or liquid?
true or false? wegener's theory of continental drift states that all of the continents had once been joined together in a single landmass and have drifted apart.
climate, fossils, landforms
what 3 types of evidence supports Wegener's theory?
the force that pushed and pulled the continents
why was Wegener's theory no accpeted by other scientists?
molten material comes up through the mid-ocean ridge
what is the 1st step in sea floor spreading?
the material cools and becomes more dense
what is the 2nd step in sea floor spreading?
convection currents help move the material away from the mid-ocean ridge
what is the 3rd step in sea floor spreading?
the material goes down in the trench and back into the mantle
what is the 4th step in sea floor spreading?
close to the mid-ocean ridge
where are the youngest rocks found on the ocean floor?
formation, movement and subduction
what 3 things does the the theory of plate tectonics explain?
the shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath earth's surface
break in the earth's crust
vibrations that travel throuh the earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
an instrument that records the ground movements caused by seismic waves as they travel through the earth
pushes a mass of rock in 2 opposite directions
stretching rock so it becomes thinner in the middle
squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
strike slip fault
rock on either side of the fault skip past each other sideways with little up or down movement
the hanging wall slides downward
the hanging wall slides upward
first waves to arrive, fastest waves, compress and expand the ground like an accordion
second waves to arrive, waves vibrate from side to side as well as up and down
slowest moving of all the waves but produce the most severe ground movements
violent shaking turns loose soil into mud
earthquakes that occur after a large earthquake in the same area
large waves that are formed as a result of plate movement or earthquakes on the on the ocean floor
a weak spot in the crust where molten material, magma comes to the surface
Ring of Fire
a major volcanic belt that is found around the Pacific Ocean
alive, shows signs of erupting
sleeping, may erupt in the future
dead, unlikely to erupt ever again
divergent plate boundaries
volcanoes commonly occur along plate boundaries
the crust is weak
why do volcanoes occur along divergent plate boundaries?
Hawaii was formed over a...
did pumice cool slow or fast?
did pumice have a high or low gas content?
shield, composite, cinder cone
what are the 3 main types of volcanoes?
cannot arise from materials that were once living
solid, inorganic, naturally occuring, crystal shape, definite chemical composition
in order for it to be classified as a mineral it must have these 5 things:
describes the look and feel of a rock's surface
a particle of a mineral or other rock that gives a rock its texture
igneous rock formed on earth's surface
igneous rock formed blow earth's surface
a series of processes on the surface and inside earth that slowly change rock from one kinds to another
igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
what are the 3 major rock groups?