Final Exam ETT
Terms in this set (71)
The process of recovery in an ecosystem following a disturbance
Glacier Bay, Alaska
Example of primary succession, glacial retreat over the last 200 years has allowed for simultaneous views of different stages of succession in a relatively small region
The series of changes that occur in an area where no soil or organisms exist
The series of changes that occur in an area where the ecosystem has been disturbed, but where soil and organisms still exist
Mt Hood, Oregon
Example of primary succession after volcanic activity
Pinelands, New Jersey
Example of secondary succession after fire
Cape Cod Dunes, Massachusetts
Example of secondary succession after salt spray and wind
Colonization, dispersal, establishment, persistence
Factors affecting plant succession
Contributor to biodiversity: the percentage of any specific allele in the gene pool
Contributor to biodiversity: A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Contributor to biodiversity: A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
Contributor to biodiversity: Number of species locally
Contributor to biodiversity: number of species that differ in occurrence between multiple habitats
Impacts of climate change on biodiversity
Causes of biodiversity loss
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
Euphorbia and cactus
Example of convergent evolution
Horseshoe Crab and Red knot
Example of two interdependent species: the crabs were being overfished, so the birds could not find enough of their eggs
Splitting of ecosystems into small fragments
An area that is biologically isolated so that a species occurring within the area cannot mix with any other of the same species
Example of a place which has manmade lakes and utilizes hydropower- creating artificial habitat. Also within a floodplain zone with repeat inundations.
Flushing Meadows Park
Example of a park which tried to implement three wetland zones and encountered problems with invasives, dry soil, arson, and lack of management. Had some success with biodiversity and habitat.
Gateway National Park
For estuarine communities, semidiurnal tides of the bays and ocean are the most important hydrologic feature at this park. They are dependent on the twice daily inundation of saltwater.
Example of a park which was being restored, had challenges with fragmentation, limited dispersal corridors, soil: fill, high pH, invasives, few migration opportunities
The cycle through which water in the hydrosphere moves; includes such processes as evaporation, precipitation, and surface and groundwater runoff
Urban Hydrologic Cycle
Stormwater management: can help with rainwater management by keeping the rainwater on site and reducing the rate of runoff. If allowed, harvested rainwater can assist in irrigation to help with recuding municipal water use for outdoor water needs.
Stormwater management: cools urban heating, reduces carbon dixoide, thermal benefits to buildings, better acoustics, reduced storm water runoff, improved aesthetics of rooftops, supports wildlife, increase roof lifespan
Stormwater management: Wide variety of surfaces, including concretes, asphalts, and various types of grid and paver systems that aid in the rapid infiltration of water.
Stormwater management: the process in which contaminants and sedimentation are removed from stormwater runoff. Stormwater is collected into the treatment area which consists of a grass buffer strip, sand bed, ponding area, organic layer or mulch layer, planting soil, and plants.
Pollutant removal mechanisms
Absorption by plants, microbes, and soil; exposure to sunlight and dryness; infiltration and sedimentation
marshes, wet meadows (periodically inundated wetland that may or may not have water present), fens (freshwater peat with basic (alkaline) soil, nutrients from groundwater), bogs (freshwater peat with acidic soils), swamps, etc
temporary pools of water that provide habitat for distinctive plants and animals
Form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments.
High vs low flow habitat
Stresses in intertidal zone
Tidal flux, Desiccation, High temperatures, Low temperatures, Wave energy
a keystone species that creates or maintains habitat for other species.
environment altered via their own physical structure, the longevity of an engineering effect after its death is dependent upon the persistence of its remains (ex- coral reefs, red forests)
change the environment by transforming living or non-living materials from one physical state to another via mechanical or other means (eg beavers, elephants)
resistance vs resilience
Orange County Great Park
Example of a park utilizing corridor strategies
continuous corridor of habitat that connects subpopulations through which species can disperse
relatively homogeneous area that differs from its surroundings
a landscape with a high degree of connectivity
Splitting of ecosystems into small fragments
Example of animal affected by habitat fragmentation
Small intervening habitat patches that dispersing organisms can use to move between large favorable habitats.
Example of a project which built corridors: in order to retain connectivity, two ecoducts were built when the road was upgraded: "Woeste Hoeve" and "Terlet"
Silver Spotted Skipper Butterfly
Example where fragmentation of the animal's habitat can be compensated through maintaining or restoring stepping stones
Optimal Reserve Design
One mechanism that plant populations evolve to avoid predation
nectar producing stuctures that are not located in flowers used to attract ants
Ants and acacia
Example of a mutualistic relationship using extrafloral nectaries
Types of rarity
Torrey pine, Florida nutmeg, Coast Redwood
Examples of rarity
graphs used to extrapolate backward to determine the species richness of a given habitat if its area were to decline
Properties of communities
A species that influences the survival of many others in an ecosystem
•Frequency •Intensity •Regularity •Timing
species moved by humans to new geographic areas, either intentionally or accidentally
introduced species that have established themselves as a stable population
Examples of Invasives
Kudzu, tree of heaven, Chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease, Gypsy moth, emerald ash borer, rabbits in Australia
Qualities of Successful Invaders
Disturbed and species-poor communities are most likely to be invaded
Phases of Invasion
Examples of Invaders
Cattle egret, Queen Anne's lace, Common mullein, Microstegium, Norway maple, Bittersweet, Garlic mustard, Purple loosestrife, Japanese knotweed
Results of invasion
Lake Gatun, Panama
Example of invasive in lake: Few measures can protect native fish once peacock bass have been introduced. Reduction in native species richness in lakes with introduced peacock bass was observed in all of the area lakes, regardless of the presence of macrophyte refugia.
American chestnut blight
The pathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica) is a member of the Ascomycota (sac fungi) taxon, and is the main cause of chestnut blight—a devastating disease of the American chestnut tree that in the early 1900s caused a rapid, widespread die-off of this once plentiful tree from its historic range in the eastern United States.
Example of biocontrol: In Australia it has been the subject of one of the first really effective biological control exercises using the moth Cactoblastis cactorum.