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34 terms

Traits, Genetics, Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

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Asexual Reproduction
type of reproduction in which one parent organism produces offspring without meiosis and fertilization (without mate)
Why is the offspring genetically identical to the parent? (Asexual Reproduction)
Since the offspring gets all its DNA from one parent
What are the two types of reproduction?
sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction
What are types of Asexual Reproduction?
Fission
Mitotic Cell Division
Budding
Animal Regeneration
Vegetative Reproduction
Cloning
Fission
Forms two genetically identical cells
- DNA molecule is copied
- copy attaches to cell membrane
- cell grow larger pulling the two copies of DNA apart
- pinches inward in the middle
- two new offspring are formed
Mitotic Cell Division
- nucleus is divided by mitosis
- Cytoplasm and it contents divide by cytokinesis and form two new cells
Budding
- grows out of the side of a parent
- falls off when it is fully grown or it can stay and create a colony
Animal Regeneration
animal's ability to regrow lost body parts
Vegetative Reproduction
Type of reproduction in which new plants grow from vegetative parts such as roots, stems, and leaves
Cloning
Plant Cloning(Tissue Culture), Animal Cloning , The process of creating a genetic duplicate of an individual organism through asexual reproduction
Advantages of Asexual Reproduction
•Enables organisms to reproduce without a mate
•Searching for a mate takes time and energy
•Enables some organisms to rapidly reproduce a large number of offspring
•Enables one plant to spread and colonize an area in a short period of time.
•Enables organisms to reproduce without a mate
•Searching for a mate takes time and energy
•Enables some organisms to rapidly reproduce a large number of offspring
•Enables one plant to spread and colonize an area in a short period of time.
Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction
•Produces offspring that are genetically identical to their parent, which causes in little genetic variation within a population
•An organism has a harmful mutation in its cell, which can affect the offspring ability to survive.
Sexual Reproduction
is a type of reproduction in which the genetic materials from two different cells combine, producing an offspring.
Fertilization
an egg cell and sperm cell combine to create a zygote.
Diploid Cells
have pairs of chromosomes
Haploid Cells
have one pair of chromosomes from each pair
Homologous Chromosomes
Pairs of chromosomes that have genes for the same traits
Meiosis
one diploid cell divides and form 4 new haploid sex cells
Mitotic Phase
During mitosis and cell division, a body cell and its nucleus divide once and produce two identical cells.
Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
•Genetic variation occurs in all organisms that reproduce sexually.
•Due to the genetic variation, individuals within a population have slight differences.
•Genetic variation may enable one plant to be more disease resistant than another within the same species.
Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction
Organisms have to grow and develop until they are mature enough to produce sex cells
Cell Cycle
cycle of growth, development, and division
What are the two types of phases in the cell cycle and what happens in the phases?
Interphase: growth of cells
Mitotic Phase: Splitting and Copies of DNA
Interphase
- rapid growth and replication of organelles (G1)
- copying of DNA (S)
- preparation for cell division (G2)
What are the phases of mitotic phase?
Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Mitosis
Prophase: DNA is copied, Nucleus Membrane breaks
Metaphase: Chromosomes line up in a straight line
Anaphase: Sister Chromatids pull apart from each other
Telophase: Nuclear Membrane is created, Spindle Fibers break down, Two new nuclei form
Cytokinesis
Cytoplasm divides and forms two new daughter cells
Results of Cell Division
- reproduction in organisms
- growth in multicellular organisms
- replacement in worn out or damaged cells
- repair of damaged tissues
Traits
•characteristic that distinguishes one organism from another organism.
Genes
regions of DNA within each chromosome
Phenotype
describes observable traits of an organism (black)
CAN CHANGE
Genotype
describes an organism complete set of genes (GG)
NEVER CHANGES
Mutation
can cause a change in DNA
Why is meiosis important?
Meiosis is important because it helps keep the number of chromosomes in species constant.