45 terms

Med Surg. Exam #4 - Sensory

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bepharitis
inflamed, red, itchy eyelids

greasy scales
entripion
inward turning of lid

lashes rub against eye

surgical correction required
ectropion
outward turning of lid

surgical correction required
hordeolum (stye)
small collection of pus (abscess) on eyelid

red, swollen, tender
treatment for hordeloum
warm compress
antibacterial ointment
chalazion
benign bump/nodule inside eyelid
how does chalazion present with initially?
red & tender
how does chalazion present over time?
painless swelling
treatment for chalazion
warm compress
antibacterial ointment
keratoconjunctivitis sicca
"Dry eye syndrome"
causes of keratoconjunctivitis sicca
1. decreased tear production
2. changed tear composition
3. altered tear distribution
4. medications
treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca
artificial tears
lubricating ointment
conjunctival hemorrhage
hemorrhage under conjunctiva

no pain or visual impairment
self-limiting
conjunctivitis
inflammation/infection of conjunctiva
causes of conjunctivits
1. allergic
2. viral
3. bacterial
treatment for conjunctivits
drug therapy
prevent recurrence
corneal abrasion
scrape or scratch

painful
may lead to infection
cataract
lens opacity

untreated = blindness
symptoms of cataracts
1. blurred vision - distorted image
2. decreased color perception
3. no pain or eye redness
how is cataracts corrected?
surgery
glaucoma
increased ocular pressure
symptoms of glaucoma
1. headache or brow pain
2. N/V (related to pain)
3. colored halos around lights
4. sudden blurred vision w/ decreased light perception
types of glaucoma
1. primary open-angle

2. angle-closure
primary open-angle glaucoma
chronic, progressive, irreversible

more common, less dramatic
features of primary open-angle glaucoma
1. asymptomatic
2. both eyes
3. wide/open angle between iris & cornea
cause of primary open-angle glaucoma
slow clogging of drainage canals - increased pressure
angle-closure glaucoma
acute

less common

sudden onset (medical emergency)
cause of angle-closure glaucoma
blocked drainage canals - sudden rise in pressure
macular degenerative disease (MDD)
deterioration of macula - area of central vision
what type of visual change does MDD cause?
mild blurring/distortion

complete loss
cause of macular degenerative disease
age related - gradual blockage of retinal caps

ischemia, necrosis
myopia
near-sighted
hyperopia
far-sighted
presbyopia
age-related vision loss
astigmatism
cornea becomes uneven
labryninthitis
infection of labyrinth area

complication with otitis media
cause of labryninthitis
erosion of bony capsule - allows organism to get into inner ear
Meniere's disease
cluster of 3 symptoms (tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo)

recurrent episodes

hearing loss with reverse
acoustic neuroma
benign tumor of CN VIII

may damage other structures as it grows - hearing, facial movement/sensation
stages of sleep
Stage I & II = 5-50% of sleep (light)

Stage III & IV = 10% of sleep (deep-sleep)
dyssomnias
insomnia or excessive sleepiness (sleep is altered)
examples of dyssomnias (6)
1. hypersomnia
2. insomnia
3. sleep deprivation
4. sleep apnea
5. restless leg syndrome
6. narcolepsy

HISS RN
parasomnias
patterns of waking behavior that appear during sleep
examples of parasomnias (7)
1. bruxism (grinding of teeth)
2. enuresis (bed-wetting)
3. nocturnal erections
4. night terrors
5. somnambulism (sleep walking)
6. sleep talking
7. sleep-related eating disorder

BENN SSS
nursing interventions to promote sleep (8)
1. sleep hygiene measures - regular sleep habits
2. ear plugs, sound masking
3. noise reduction
4. decrease light level
5. cluster patient care
6. keep door closed
7. "Quiet time" on patient care unit
8. communicate periods of uninterrupted rest

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