34 terms

Chem 109 RVW

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Law of Definite Proportions
Different samples of a given compound always contain the same elements in the same mass ratio
Law of Multiple Proportions
When 2 elements come together to form more than 1 compound, the masses of one element will combine with the fixed mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers
Subatomic particles
Make up atoms; protons, neutrons, electrons
Covalent bonds
Chemical bond when 2 atoms share electrons (nonmetals)
Electrolyte
A chemical compound that dissociates when dissolved or melted to produce an electrically conductive medium
Strong electrolyte
An electrolyte that completely dissociates
Molarity
Measurement of concentration; ratio of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution
Thermochemistry
Study of energy transfer associated with chemical reactions and physical changes
Energy
The capacity to transfer heat or do work; state function
Types of molecular motion
Rotation, translation, vibration
Extensive property
Depends on the amount of matter
Intensive property
Does not depend on the amount of matter
Accuracy
How close a measurement is to the true value
Precision
How close multiple measurements of the same thing are to each other
Dalton's Postulates
elements are composed of atoms; all atoms of an element are identical; compounds are 2+ elements and their atoms in same ratios; chemical reactions rearrange atoms
Ionic compound
transfer electrons (metal and nonmetal)
Strong Acids
HCl; HBr; HI; HNO3; HClO3; HClO4; H2SO4
Oxidation Reduction Reaction
Chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another
Exothermic
(-) heat exits a system to its surroundings
Endothermic
(+) heat transferred from surroundings to system
State Function
a function that does not depend on the path; initial -> final position; how you get there does not matter
Specific heat (s)
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1°C
Heat capacity (c)
amount of heat required to raise temeperature of an object 1°C; {J/°C}
Hess's Law
The sum of the energy of each step = overall energy
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
The more you know about an electron as a wave the less you know about it as a particle and vice versa
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No 2 electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers
Aufbau Principle
electrons start in lowest energy orbital and more to higher orbitals
Hund's Rule
the most stable arrangement of electrons; maximize spin
Ionization Energy (IE)
energy associated with removal of electrons
Electron Affinity (EA)
Energy released when an atom in gas pahse accepts an electron (Delta H of electron attachment)
Lattice Energy
Energy required to convert one mole of ionic solid to its constituent ions in gas phase
Electronegativity
ability to draw electrons to itself
VSEPR
valence shell electron pair repulsion
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
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