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History Final Extended Response
Terms in this set (132)
In what ways did the Industrial Revolution mark a sharp break with the past?
It was a breakthrough that provided humans access to a much greater quantity of energy. The Industrial Revolution also effected the environment when it came to damaging the landscape during excavation, dumping waste into rivers, polluting the air (led to increased amounts of respiratory disease). Also, the amount of resources that were then able to be produced was an enormous jump from the production output of the past. Nations were able to generate wealth a lot quicker. Lastly, technological advancements started coming a lot quicker.
Why did the Industrial Revolution take place first in Europe? In what way did this European development have global roots?
The reasons as to why the Industrial Revolution started in Europe was the fact that European internal development favored innovation. Its many new small, and competitive states made their monarchs desperate when it came to the need of revenue. Thus in the absence of an effective tax-collecting bureaucracy pushed them into an unusual alliance with their merchant class. The way that it had global roots was that it greatly energized commerce and brought Europeans into direct contact with peoples around the world.
What was distinctive about Britain that helps to explain why the Industrial Revolution began in this country?
A series of agricultural innovations (crop rotation, selective breeding of animals, lighter plows, higher yielding seeds) increased agricultural output which kept food prices low and freed up labor from the countryside. The guilds, which earlier protected Britain's urban skilled worker had largely disappeared by the eighteenth century. Thus allowing employers to run their manufacturing enterprises as they saw fit. Also, they had a ready supply of coal and iron ore which was easy to excavate. Lastly, the county's location protected it from the kind of invasions that so many continental European states experienced during the French Revolution.
How did the Industrial Revolution transform the aristocracy, the middle-classes, and the laboring classes in nineteenth-century Britain?
The Industrial Revolution transformed the aristocracy in a very negative way. In the mid-nineteenth century a few thousand families owned more than half of the cultivated land in Britain, but most of it was leased to tenant farmers who in turn employed agricultural wage laborers to work on it. Although the British aristocracy declined as a result of the Industrial Revolution (along with all other large landowners in industrial society). As urban wealth became more important landed aristocrats had to make way for the up and coming business man, manufacturers, and bankers. The decline began in the 1840s when high tariffs on foreign agricultural imports that were designed to protect the interests of British landlords were finally abolished. The middle classes were the ones who benefited from the industrialization. The laboring classes (70% of population) were the ones who suffered and benefited the least from the Industrial Revolution. Most urban workers lived in overcrowded cities that didn't have proper sanitation, lots of disease, endless rows of houses/warehouses, few public services/open spaces, and inadequate/polluted water supplies. The average life expectancy in England by 1850 was only 39.5 years old (less than it had been some three centuries ago). Lastly, they worked in poor labor conditions that had long hours, low wages, lots of child labor.
How did industrialization in the U.S. compare to industrialization in Europe?
The industrialization in the U.S. was much larger than any country in Europe. Page 587.
In what ways was Indian technology considered superior prior to the Industrial Revolution?
They had a great ship building industry that produced skilled carpenters, and people with mechanical skills. It also lead to the training of draughtsman.
How did European products gain great market share than those of India after the Industrial Revolution?
It was due to mass production and a cheaper production process.
Based on testimony before the Sadler committee, what were the work experiences of children laboring in textile mills in nineteenth-century Britain?
It was terrible. They worked long hours, had little food, the conditions were poor, they weren't paid much, and they could be beaten.
Why was the death toll so high in the Triangle Fire? What was the background of the majority of the workers who died?
The majority of the workers who died were women (except for 23 of them). The death toll was very high due to an uncoordinated evacuation, lack of safe exits, nobody warned the workers on the ninth floor, and the fire truck ladders were not tall enough to reach the stranded people.
Why was the death toll so high in the recent fire at the Tazreen Fashions factory in Bangladesh?
The factory was not a safe place to work. The fire safety preparations were inadequate, and the building itself was under construction. Fires could spread very quickly due to the amount of yarn/fabric all over the factory.
Who holds responsibility for the deaths in the Tazreen Fashions factory fire?
Nobody is being specifically blamed. Big brand companies such as Sears and Walmart said that they didn't know that Tazreen Fashions was making their clothing. The global apparel industry aspires to operate with accountability that extends from distant factories to retail stores. Big brands demand that factories be inspected by accredited auditing firms and if a factory doesn't pass the inspection they aren't supposed to receive orders. Tazreen Fashions received orders anyway due to them being able to provide low cost and quick turnarounds which is in high demand.
What are points of comparison between the 1911 Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire and the Tazreen Fashions factory fire a century later?
After the Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire in New York lots of reforms were put in place on how American Sweatshops operated
What obstacles do union organizers in Bangladesh face?
Factory owners use violence and intimidation to prevent workers from forming labor unions. Also, police and other government officials look the other way when workers seek justice. This is because garment factories account for most of the country's exports and they are run by a powerful group of industrialists who have lots of political influence
What does Vikas Bajaj argue that Bangladeshi garment workers need from the West?
Big Western retailers have taken steps to improve safety since the collapse of Rana Plaza by setting up two groups of inspection teams that require owners to make safety improvements to their factories. Although Western retailers have not done enough to prevent other labor abuses. They need to make sure that workers aren't mistreated when it comes to them attempting to create labor unions
What are some of the poor and even dangerous working conditions that have been reported at the factories of Apple's suppliers?
Employees work excessive overtime, live in crowded dorms, improper disposal of hazardous waste, poor safety precautions when workers have been using dangerous chemicals to clean iPhone screens, explosions inside the factories which causes death/injury
Has Apple dealt effectively with labor violations at these factories? Why or why not?
They have made it seem like they have, but in reality they haven't. They don't want to damage relationships with suppliers
What are conditions like for children in cobalt mines in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), according to Amnesty International?
Miners as young as seven years old are carrying back breaking loads and working in intense heat for between one or two dollars a day. They are not supplied with face masks or gloves. Children have said that they have been beaten by security guards employed by mining companies and forced to pay "fines" by unauthorized mine police sent by state officials to extort money and intimidate workers
What companies does Amnesty International claim use cobalt mined by children in the DRC?
They have convicted 16 companies for using cobalt mined by children in the DRC. The companies that they mentioned were Apple, Microsoft, and Vodafone
Do you think these companies denial of such charges are legitimate? Why or why not?
No they are not. Companies know where these materials are coming from. They just don't want to admit it
What is modern-day slavery and what are the different forms of slavery that exist today?
The definition of modern day slavery is "all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily". Some different forms of modern day slavery are: women forced into prostitution, child slavery in agriculture supply chains, whole families working for nothing to pay off generational debts. (Bonded labor, Forced labor, Descent- based slavery, Trafficking, Child Slavery, Early and forced marriage).
Where does such slavery exist and who is most affected?
Slavery thrives on every continent and in almost every country. It affects the world's most vulnerable people. Women and girls are at more risk compared to men and boys. Women make up the majority of those being exploited 55% are women and girls, and account for the vast majority of sexually exploited people. Children make up a quarter of all those in slavery. Usually the minority and excluded groups are the ones effected.
In what ways did the Industrial Revolution shape the character of nineteenth-century European (and U.S.) imperialism?
They needed goods/needed to export their goods to other countries due to overproduction. For example, part of European and American fascination with China during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries lay in the enormous market potential represented by its huge population. European investors often found it more profitable to invest their money abroad than at home. Wealthy Europeans also saw social benefits to foreign markets, which served to keep Europe's factories humming and its workers employed
How and why did European views of Asians and Africans change in the nineteenth century?
In earlier centuries Europeans had defined others largely in religious terms. "They" were heathen; "we" were Christian. Even as they held onto this sense of religious superiority, Europeans adopted many of the ideas and techniques of more advanced societies. They held many aspects of Chinese and Indian civilization in high regard; they freely mixed and mingled with Asian and African elites and often married their women; some even saw more technologically simple peoples as "noble savages". Although, when the 19th century came around the Chinese who had been highly praised were now reduced to the image of "John Chinaman"-weak, cunning, obstinately conservative, and in large numbers a distinct threat. African societies which had been regarded even in the slave-trade era as nations and their leaders as kings were demoted in European eyes to the status of tribes led by chiefs as a means of emphasizing their "primitive" qualities. Europeans changed their views on people due the advert of the Industrial age. Europeans developed a secular arrogance that in some cases replaced their religious superiority. They had unlocked the secrets of nature, created a society of unprecedented wealth, and used both to produce unsurpassed military power. These became their criteria by which Europeans judged both themselves and the rest of the world.
How does Conte Joseph Arthur de Gobineu describe the "three great races"? (Black)
He describes them as being the lowest of the three races. He says that they are intelligent, but their knowledge is limited. Their taste and smell are developed to levels unknown by the yellow and white. The strength of his sensations is the most striking proof of his inferiority. All food is good in his eyes, nothing disgusts or repels him. He eats very quickly and furiously. They have no conscious compared to the whites. Honor is unknown to them.
How does Conte Joseph Arthur de Gobineu describe the "three great races"? (Yellow)
The yellow is the exact opposite of the blacks. Their skulls point forward, not backward. Their forehead is wide and bony, often high and projecting. The shape of the face is triangular and the nose/chin are flat. There are more obese yellow people than blacks. The yellow man has little physical energy and is inclined to apathy. He shows much more discrimination in his choice of food. He does not dream or theorize and the invents little, but can appreciate and take over what is useful to him. His desire is to live in the easiest and most comfortable way possible. No civilized society could be created by them. Honor is unknown to them
How does Conte Joseph Arthur de Gobineu describe the "three great races"? (White)
Gifted with reflective energy, or rather with an energetic intelligence. They have a bigger sense of unity compared to the yellows. They have a greater physical power, and a bigger sense for order. Not just as a guarantee for peace and tranquility, but for self-preservation. They love liberty and are unwilling to live any other such system. When they are being cruel they realize it. They have a tremendous conscious. Honor is very important to them. Although, the whites being wildly more intellectual is offset due to their sensations.
In what ways was Latin America linked to the global economy of the nineteenth century?
They were linked to the global economy because their exports to industrializing countries greatly increased. They exported lots of raw materials such as, copper, tin, wild rubber, silver, guano (bird droppings for fertilization).
What impact did Latin America's export boom have on the region?
In return Latin Americans imported textiles, machinery, tools, weapons, and luxury goods from Europe and the United States. Also, large scale investment in European capital also occurred in Latin America. In result, Latin American elites made their cities a lot like those of Europe or the United States.
How did Latin America's export boom in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century benefit some social classes while hurting others?
Only a small portion of Latin American society saw any great benefit from the export boom and all that followed it. Upper-class landowners certainly gained as exports flourished and their property values soared. Middle-class urban dwellers (merchants, office workers, lawyers, etc.) also grew in numbers and prosperity as their skills proved valuable in a modernizing society. Although, this was a very narrow group of people and were considered the elites. Everyone else was lower class and they weren't seeing any benefits, they had to deal with the intensive labor jobs.
How does Albert Beveridge's vision of America contrast with that of the American Anti-Imperialist League?
Albert Beveridge believes that it is our duty as Americans to set the world its example of right and honor. Our duty is to take over other lands that do not follow our belief of liberty and civilization. The American Anti-Imperialist League by conducting Imperialism we are going against our belief of liberty and civilization because we are deliberately trying to control another group of people. Although they did believe that the people of the United States should stand together and fight to keep people that are against American liberty or are for un-American ideas out of the White House and out of Congress
How were the "second-wave" European colonial empires of the nineteenth century different from the "first-wave" European colonial empires of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries?
The first wave only consisted of a couple countries (British, Dutch, Spanish (Spain), Portuguese). The second wave consisted of many more countries (Germany, Italy, Belgium, U.S., and Japan).
Why might subject people choose to cooperate with the colonial regime? What might prompt them to rebel or resist?
Various groups and many individuals willingly cooperated with colonial authorities because it benefited them. Many men found employment, status, and security in European-led armed forces. Many people didn't cooperate/rebelled due to various grievances they had with the British due to their presence. Including: local rulers who had lost power, landlords deprived of their estates or their rent, peasants overtaxed and exploited by urban moneylenders and landlords alike, unemployed weavers displaced by manufactured textiles, and religious leaders outraged by military preaching
How did colonial states use their power to create a system of forced labor and what was the impact of this system on colonial subjects in Africa and India?
Colonial rule affected the lives of its subject people in many ways, but the most traumatic change was in their ways of work. The colonial state with its power to tax, to seize land for European enterprises, to compel labor, and to build railroads, ports, and roads played an important role in these transformations.
How did cash-crop agriculture transform the lives of colonized peoples?
Local small farmers benefited considerably because they were now able to own their own land, build substantial houses, and buy imported goods. For several decades in the late nineteenth century standards of living improved sharply due to their selling of various cash crops
Why did colonized peoples in Africa and India become involved in wage labor? What kinds of wage labor were available?
It was driven by the need for money, by the loss of land adequate to support their families, or sometimes by the orders of colonial authorities. The kind of labor available was working on European owned plantations, mines, construction projects, and homes.
Did colonial rule bring "progress" in its wake?
Defenders, both then and now praise it for jump starting modern economic growth
How did Japan's relationship to the larger world change during its modernization process?
Japan became more involved in global affairs. They launched their own empire-building enterprise even as European powers and the United States were carving up much of Asia and Africa into colonies or spheres of influence
What specific measures did the Germans in East African take to increase cotton cultivation? What was the effect of these measures?
In 1902 the Germans implemented a plan to increase cotton cultivation in the coastal and southern sections of the colony. It required each village to provide a quota of laborers to work cultivating cotton a certain number of days a year on government estates, settler plantations, or village fields. To encourage Africans to accept these low paying jobs, the Germans instituted a head tax payable in cash only. This later lead to rebellion due to African opposition in 1905
When African chiefs signed the Royal Niger Company treaty, what did they cede to the company and what benefits (if any) did their villages receive in return? How fair do you think this document was?
They gave their territory, full power to settle all native disputes arising from any cause, pledged not to enter any war with other tribes without the sanction of the Royal Niger Company, gave Royal Niger Company full power to mine, farm, and build in any portion of the country, Won't have any relations with foreigners or strangers' w/o permission. The benefits that the Chiefs received was that the Company would not interfere with any of the native laws or customs of the country, consistently with the maintenance of order and good government, Company will pay native owners of land a reasonable amount for any portion that they require, the Company will protect the chiefs from any attacks from neighboring aggressive tribes, and the Company will pay the chiefs a certain amount of money. I think this document is fair.
What abuses occurred in the Belgian Congo under King Leopold as a result of efforts to force the extraction of rubber?
Leopold's representatives conducted mutilation and murder in order to promote the continuance of rubber production. If the rubber that was brought to the authorities was of poor quality the representatives would shoot a certain portion of the male villagers that scavenged for the rubber. He would then send the remaining men back in the woods to find more rubber so that they would meet the quota. In some cases people would have their hands cut off. Also, sometimes villagers would be cut in certain ways so that they would bleed out (didn't always bleed out though).
Where do more than 60 percent of the world's professing Christians now live?
More than 60% of the world's professing Christians now live outside Europe and North America, and, within the United States
The early modern era of world history gave birth to what two intersecting cultural trends that continue to play out in the twentieth century?
The first was the spread of Christianity to Asians, Africans, and Native Americans, some of whom who are now returning the favor. The second lay in the emergence of a modern scientific outlook, which sharply challenged western Christianity even as it too acquired a global presence
How was European imperial expansion related to the spread of Christianity?
Christianity rode the waves of European empire building and commercial expansion, Christianity was established solidly in the Americas and the Philippines; far more modestly in Siberia, China, Japan, and India; and hardly at all within the vast and still growing domains (land) where Islam was practiced. Christianity which was once just a cultural tradition largely limited Europe in 1500 now became a genuine world religion
In what ways did European Christianity in Spanish America merge with Native American religious and cultural practices (a process referred to as religious syncretism)?
Europeans saw their political and military success as a demonstration of the power of the Christian God. Native American peoples generally agreed, and by 1700 or earlier the vast majority had been baptized and saw themselves in some respects as Christians
What was distinctive about European colonial empires of the nineteenth century?
The prominence of race in distinguishing rulers and ruled, the extent in which colonial societies could penetrate the societies they governed (tax collecting, new ways of communication/transportation, changes in landholding patterns, integration of colonial economies into a global network of exchange, public health, sanitation measures, and activities of missionaries), their ability to count and classify the people that they were governing, they contradicted their core values that they had at home (colonies were essentially dictatorships, offering order and stability but not in a democratic government)
What impact did Western education have on colonial societies?
To previously illiterate people, the knowledge of reading and writing of any kind often suggested an almost magical power. Within the colonial setting, it could mean an escape from some of the most onerous obligations of living under European control, such as forced labor. More positively, it meant access to better paying positions in government bureaucracies, mission organizations, or business firms and to the exciting imported goods that their salaries could buy. Moreover, education often provided social mobility and elite status within their own communities and an opportunity to achieve, or at least approach, equality with whites in racially defined societies.
What were the attractions of Christianity within colonial societies in Africa?
Military defeat shook confidence in the old gods and local practices, fostering openness to new sources of supernatural power that could operate in the wider world now impinging on their societies, Christianity was widely associated with modern education, and, especially in Africa, mission schools were primary providers of Western education.
Why did missionary teaching and practice also generate conflict and opposition?
It created conflict specifically when it touched gender roles. A wide range of issues focusing on the lives of women proved challenging for missionaries and spawned opposition from African converts or potential converts. One of the most explosive issues that agitated Christian communities in colonial Kenya was that of "female circumcision," This was when an excision was done a pubescent girl's clitoris and adjacent genital tissue was done as part of initiation rites marking her coming of age. To missionaries it was seen as unnecessary and was considered to be physical damaging to the girl and it also brought unnecessary attention.
How did European Christianity mix with traditional African religious and cultural practices (another example of religious syncretism)?
Christianity in Africa became Africanized. Within mission based churches many converts continued using protective charms and medicines and consulting local medicine men. Other converts continued to believe in their old gods and spirits but now deemed them evil and sought their destruction. Furthermore, thousands of separatist movements established a wide array of independent churches which were thoroughly Christian but under African rather than missionary control and in which many cases incorporated African cultural practices and modes of worship
Why is Juan Diego, the Aztec whose vision of the Virgin Mary is the origin of the Virgin of Guadalupe, a controversial figure? What is the symbolism of his canonization?
Millions believe in Juan Diego, but doubters think he was an invention of the white skinned friars of the Spanish conquest, created to win the allegiance of the natives. The symbol of his canonization is the idea that the Spanish conquerors and the Indians they conquered became one nation, indivisible.
How is the Virgin of Guadalupe an example of religious syncretism? What is her appeal to the Mexican people?
It's an example of religious syncretism because she was inspired by the Virgin Mary. She appeals to the Mexican people because they believe that she is the source of their strength and represents their identity
How is the process of Christian revival reversing itself in today's world?
Today the process is reversing itself, as the population of churchgoers dwindles in Europe, remains fairly static in the United States and erupts in the "global south" (a geographic political term that encompasses Africa, Latin America and much of Asia).
How is Christianity practiced differently in the global south?
Christianity is practiced differently (especially in Africa) because it has been invested with cultural values that long predate the first missionary efforts.
What is the Redeemed Church's primary appeal in Nigeria?
The Redeemed are known for the intensity of their prayer. In Nigeria, it has been called the "weeping church" During services, members of the congregation will clap, whoop, and break into glossolalia (speaking in tongues which Pentecostals believe to be the verbal expression of the Holy Spirit), they will collapse to the floor and bury their faces in the carpet
What aspects of Europe's nineteenth-century history contributed to the First World War?
Europe's system of alliances which was intended to keep the peace created obligations that drew the Great Powers of Europe into a general war by August 1914. There were two alliances, Germany, Italy, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Russia, Britain, France. A rather small incident that occurred in the Balkans created a conflict that consumed most of Europe. The conflict was when a Serbian nationalist assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. There were two additional aspects that contributed to the war and one of them was the mounting popular nationalism (The Great Powers of Europe competed intensively for colonies, spheres of influence, and superiority in armaments, schools, mass media, and military service had convinced millions of ordinary Europeans that their national identities were profoundly and personally meaningful). The other aspect was an industrializing militarism.
How were the feelings of nationalist fervor with which Europeans greeted the start of WWI dashed by the reality of war and its aftermath?
Many men rushed to recruiting offices, fearing that the war would end before they could enlist. Woman took men's places in factories while they were on the battlefield. Many Europeans believed that the war had given them a higher purpose, a renewed dedication to the greatness of their nations. In reality though war was terrible. It was brutal and many people went insane.
What was WWI's global impact?
There were tons of casualties (particularly among elite and well educated groups), physical destruction (especially in France), the aftermath of the war brought substantial social and cultural changes to ordinary Europeans and Americans (integrating millions of returning veterans into civilian life wasn't easy), the war had loosened the hold of tradition in various ways (enormous casualties promoted social mobility, suffrage movements revived and woman received the right to vote in many countries perhaps due to the sacrifices they made during the conflict, The war also transformed international political life (from the collapse of German, Russian, and Austro-Hungarian empires emerged a new map of Central Europe), The Great War generated profound changes in the world beyond Europe as well (during the conflict Ottoman authorities were suspecting that some of their Armenian subjects were collaborating with the Russian enemy so they massacred, or deported an estimated 1 million Armenians, the war also brought to an end the declining Ottoman Empire which created the modern map of the Middle East, even though Latin American countries were mostly bystanders in the war many of them benefited from the growing demand for their primary products, but once the war ended that demand stopped which created mass unemployment, urban riots, and bloody strikes, Japan emerged from the war strengthened due to European support for its claim to take over German territory and privileges in China, Finally the U.S. was put at the center of the stage as a global power.
How did fascism challenge the ideas and practices of European liberalism and democracy?
Fascists bitterly condemned individualism, liberalism, feminism, parliamentary democracy, and communism, all of which they argued divided and weakened a nation. They embraced traditional values and opposed a more modern life. Fascists were trying to establish themselves in countries that practiced European liberalism and democracy.
What was the basis of popular support for Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany?
The basis of popular support for Mussolini was that he promised an alternative to both communism and ineffective democratic rule, he promised order in the streets, an end to bickering party based politics, the maintenance of traditional social order, he promised his mass followers mass social reforms. The basis of popular support for Hitler was in large because his policies successfully brought Germany out of depression because the German economy largely grounded to a halt in the early 1930s amid massive unemployment among workers and the middle class alike, also Hitler appealed to rural and traditional values that many Germans feared losing as their country modernized
How was fascism in Italy and Germany similar? How was it different?
It was similar because both expressed extreme nationalism, openly advocated the use of violence as a political tool, generated a single party dictatorship, were led by charismatic figures, despised parliamentary democracy, hated communism, and viewed war as a positive and ennobling experience. It was different because in Germany the Nazis established much heavier control of society, and initially Mussolini had ridiculed Nazi racism, but as Germany and Italy became closer together Italy too began a program of overt anti-Semitism, though it was not nearly as extreme as Nazi Germany's.
What are the characteristics of today's far-right, fascist and neo-Nazi groups in Europe and the U.S.? What is the main focus of their racist discourse?
They are made up of young racist skinheads, aging Ku Klux Klan members, and extremists on the left and the right. They want a white society and they are severely against illegal immigration
How has anti-Semitism taken on a new dimension in the United States with the emergence of the Trump campaign?
Trump's campaign has been battling against political correctness and it has provided a kind of on ramp for bigotry to enter the political mainstream. Due to Mr. Trump's campaign evoking hostility towards minorities he had inspired and emboldened white nationalists and others to engage in acts of digital aggression towards "others" (including Jews-Jewish journalists in particular).
What connection exists between the current rise of far-right political parties in Europe and the increase in neo-Nazi activity and attitudes?
The election saw the far right, anti-immigration party, the Sweden Democrats becoming the country's third largest party winning close to 13% of the vote. The Party of the Swedes, a neo-Nazi political party were expected to do well, although in the end, "failed utterly" in the words of Quensel. Despite this, they are still having an impact on society. "We expected some kind of increase, mainly because it was an election year last year and the Party if the Swedes were expected to gain 10,000 votes and aimed to win 10 seats. They failed utterly, yet they are making people aware of their existence". Says Quensel. In Austria the Freedom Party now supports Israel and now focuses its hostility towards Muslims. Heinz-Christian Strache who has taken over as FPO chairman said that "Political Islam is the fascism of today and that is what we have to fight".
In what ways were the origins of World War II in Asia and in Europe similar to each other? How were they different?
Both countries were irritated about something, Germany was upset with the treaty of Versailles.
How did World War II differ from World War I
Germany was essential in both wars, but other than that they were vastly different. The second war was not welcomed with mass enthusiasm across Europe. The first war quickly bogged down in trench warfare that emphasized defense. In the second war the Germans used the tactic called blitzkrieg (lightning war) that coordinated the rapid movement of tanks, infantry, and airpower over very large areas. Lastly, the second war was the most destructive conflict in world history, with total deaths estimated at around 60 million, some six times that of World War 1. World War 2 was much more brutal. When Nagasaki was nuked it instantly killed 10s of thousands of people
What was the global impact of World War II?
It rearranged the architecture of world politics. As the war ended, Europe was impoverished, its industrial infrastructure was shattered, many of its great cities were in ruins, and millions of it people were homeless or displaced. Within a few years, this much weakened Europe was effectively divided, with its western half operating under an American security umbrella and the eastern half subject to Soviet control. It was clear that Europe's dominance in world affairs were over. Also, another outcome of the war was the spread of communism Communist parties largely dominated by the Soviet Union took power all across Europe. Also, the war allowed the Chinese Communist Party to gain support and credibility by leading the struggle against Japan. The Chief outcome was the United Nations (UN), it was established in 1945 as a successor to the moribund League of Nations. Lastly, after the end of World War 2 the United States emerged as a global power.
What was life like in the Lodz Ghetto? and the Auschwitz concentration camp?
Lodz- It was terrible. There were starving people all over the place including young children who were walking barefoot in the snow. There was mass overcrowding and the conditions were unimaginable. There were tons of sick people and medication was very scarce. The Ghetto had one fire engine. The woman that managed to smuggle their babies into the Ghetto would end up having them taken from them and taken to the gas chamber. There were public executions and hangings and in some cases the bodies would stay hung for weeks and weeks
What was life like in the Auschwitz concentration camp?
There were thousands of girls shaved bald that were living in crowded horse stables. The soldiers would run up and down the hallway between the stalls and would randomly lash out on girls One time when a girl attempted to escape and everyone in the camp had to kneel throughout the day and night until they captured her. Due to this their knees were scraped raw. When they captured her they broke her arms and legs while everyone watched, and then they took her to the gas chamber.
How did Heda manage to escape from the concentration camp?
She was initially locked in a barn, but she managed to unlock it with her knife by removing two nails She removed one of them during the day, and the other one at night. The guard that was on duty was asleep so she was then able to scale a fence and a very damaged wall. Then a little girl gave them food as they hid at a nearby farm and then shortly after she led them out of the town.
How did friends receive Heda once she arrived to Prague?
Jenda who said that he would always be there for him ended up shooing her off due to his fear of getting in trouble due to him associating with her. A women named Auntie welcomed her with open arms She allowed Heda to stay the night and she fed her very well and gave her a new set of clothes. Her last friend Franz also admitted to being scared and he said that she has a better chance of living if she stayed in the camp. He didn't help her.
How were Japanese soldiers hardened to the task of murdering Chinese combatants and non-combatants?
The Japanese military would set up various games and exercises that numbed their men to the human instinct against killing people that were not attacking. An example is when the soldiers were on their way to the capital they would be forced to participate in killing competitions which were avidly covered by the Japanese media like sporting events.
What similarities exist between the horrors of the Holocaust and the horrors of the Rape of Nanking, despite the differences in place?
Prisoners were brutally murdered and there was sexual assault occurring often.
What was Karl Marx's view of history? How did it reflect an Enlightenment perspective?
That conflicting social classes (slave owners, slaves, nobles, peasants, capitalists, and workers) successfully drove the process of historical transformation. He based his theories on extensive research; like Newton and Darwin, he sought to formulate general laws that would explain events in a rational way. Nor did he believe in heavenly intervention, chance, or divinely endowed powers of kings. Like the intellectuals of the Enlightenment, Marx believed strongly in progress, but in their thinking, conflict and struggle rather than reason and education were the motors of progress.
What actions did the industrial laboring classes take to improve their lives?
By 1815 about 1 million workers, mostly artisans, had created a variety of "friendly societies" with dues contributed by members, these working-class self-help groups provided insurance against sickness, a decent funeral, and an opportunity for social life in an otherwise bleak environment. Additionally, others acted within the political arena by joining movements aimed at obtaining the right to vote for working-class men, a goal that was gradually achieved in the second half of the nineteenth century. When trade unions were legalized in 1824, growing numbers of factory workers joined these associations in their efforts to achieve better wages and working conditions.
How did Karl Marx understand the Industrial Revolution?
Marx spent much of his life in England, where he witnessed the brutal conditions of Britain's Industrial Revolution and wrote voluminously about history and economics
What developments that tempered working-class radicalism had Marx not foreseen?
Marx didn't expect the development of the middle and lower middle class, which accounted for roughly 30% of the population and who were not by any means wealthy, but they were very proud that thy weren't manual laborers. Also, he didn't expect that workers would be able to better their standard of living under a capitalist framework. But they did. Wages rose under pressure from unions; cheap imported food improved working-class diets; infant mortality rates fell; and shops and chain stores catering to working-class families multiplied.
Why did Marxist socialism not take root in the United States?
One answer lies in the relative conservatism of major American union organizations, especially in the American Federation of Labor. Its focus on skilled workers excluded the more radical unskilled laborers, and its refusal to align with any party limited its influence in the political arena. Additionally, the massive immigration from Europe beginning in the 1840s created a very diverse industrial labor force on top of the country's sharp racial divide. This diversity contrasted sharply with the more homogenous populations of many European countries. Catholics and Protestants; whites and blacks; English, Irish, Germans, Slavs, Jews, and Italians-such differences undermined the class solidarity of American workers, making it far more difficult to sustain class-oriented political parties and a socialist labor movement. Also, the county's remarkable economic growth generated on average a higher standard of living for American workers than their European counterparts experienced. Lastly, by 1910, a particularly large group of white collar workers in sales, services, and offices outnumbered factory laborers. Their middle-class aspirations further diluted impulses towards radicalism.
In The Communist Manifesto, what is Marx and Engel's criticism of the bourgeoisie?
He claims that the bourgeoisie has stripped every occupation of its honor and excitement by converting the physicians, the lawyers, the priests, the poets, the men of science, into its paid wage laborers. Also, the bourgeoisie has stripped families of their sentimental value and has left it with only a mere money relation. They also criticized it for allowing the market to chase it all over the globe in order to establish connections. The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production, by the immensely facilitated means of communication, draws all, even the most barbarian nations into civilization.
In the view of Marx and Engels, how did industrialization change the proletariat? What role do they foresee for the proletariat?
The working class will become slaves to their machines and will ultimately become slaves to the factory owners. They see the proletariat using its political supremacy to wrest, by degree, all capital from the bourgeoisie to centralize all instruments of production in the hands of the state (with the working class acting as the rulers) and to increase the productive forces as rapidly as possible
How do Marx and Engels describe the socialist society that will follow the collapse of the capitalist system?
they described it as everyone being equal and that there will be no social classes.
how does The Internationale give expression to both the oppression and the hopes of ordinary people working for a socialist future?
At the beginning of the song it shows how the workers were referred to as prisoners of starvation and were slaves to the factory owners. It displays the hopes of ordinary people by showing how they wanted to be treated fairly and given the wages that they deserve. Also, towards the end of the song they spoke about how the world belongs to them
According to Egan, what aspects of the United States can be considered socialist?
Unions can be considered socialist because they help balance out the wealth and provide many benefits to their members.
What does Kristoff argue is the impact of the decline of unions in the United States?
There is now a bigger wage gap between owners and workers. Construction workers on average make 10,000 less per year than they did in 1973. Also, productivity has decreased
Why has Canada experienced less union decline than the United States, despite also facing globalization and technological advances?
Differences in labor law and public policy are at the root of this disparity. First, Canadian law is simply far more hospitable to unions. Several provinces have bans on temporary or permanent striker replacement, which doesn't exist in the United States and there is no Canadian equivalent of the "right-to-work" laws that have been enacted in 24 U.S. states. Second is the manner in which Canada enables unions to form. In the United States most private sector workers who wish to unionize must sign authorization cards, petition the National Labor Relations Board and then vote in an election. The time between the petition and the election often stretches to months, and sometimes longer than a year. In Canada, the process is relatively quick Card check authorization, which is used in almost half of Canadian provinces, allows a majority of employees to form a union at their workplace simply by signing cards stating that they would like to do so. The other provinces have a system similar to the United States, where cards are signed, a petition is submitted to the labor board and then an election is held. In Canada however, the election is typically required to occur within five to ten days after the petition.
What factors contributed to the making of a revolutionary situation in Russia by the beginning of the twentieth century?
The Russian Industrialization led an explosive social outcome that consisted of many modern and educated people, many of whom were in the middle class, objected strongly to the deep conservatism of tsarist Russia and sought a greater role in political life. Also, the factory workers (5% of population) quickly developed a radial class consciousness based on harsh conditions and the absence of any legal outlet for their grievances. Lastly, a small but growing number of educated Russians found in Marxist socialism a way of understanding the changes they witnessed daily as well as hope for the future in a revolutionary upheaval of workers. In 1898, they created an illegal Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party and quickly became involved in workers' education, union organization, and eventually, revolutionary activity.
When and where did communism exercise influence during the twentieth century?
By the 1970s almost one third of the world's population lived in societies governed by communist regimes. By far the most significant were the Soviet Union, the world's largest country in size, and China, the world's largest country in population. But communism also came to Eastern Europe in the wake of World War 2 and the extension of the Soviet military presence there. In Asia, Mongolia came under a Communist regime in 1924. Following Japan's defeat in World War 2 its Korean colony was partitioned, with the northern half going under Soviet control, and therefore communist control. In Vietnam communist control was first established in the northern part of the country, and after 1975 throughout the entire country. On coming to power in 1959, Castro moved towards communism and an alliance with the Soviet Union. In addition, a shaky communist regime took power in Afghanistan in 1979, propped up briefly by massive Soviet military support. In the aftermath of World War 2, communist parties played important political roles in Greece, France, and Italy. In the 1950s, a small communist party in the United States became the focus of an intense wave of fear and political repression known as McCarthyism. Lastly, a number of African states in the 1970s proclaimed themselves Marxist for a time and aligned themselves with the Soviet Union in international affairs.
Why were the Bolsheviks able to gain power during the Russian Revolution?
The Bolsheviks were able to gain power due to Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)'s party message during the desperate circumstances of 1917. He stated that there would be an end to all war, land for the peasants, workers' control of factories, self-determination for non-Russian nationalities-resonated with an increasingly rebellious public mood, particularly in the major cities.
Why can the forced abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the Bolsheviks' rise to power be considered a social revolution?
It can be considered a social revolution because the Bolsheviks promised to put the workers in more control of their lives based on the message of his party.
What was the appeal of Communism in China before 1949?
The growing appeal of communism was due to the amount that the CCP was waging war against Japanese invaders. Also, in the areas that the CCP controlled, they reduced taxes, interest payments for peasants; taught literacy to adults; and mobilized women for the struggle. Thus the CCP frontally addressed both of China's major problems (foreign imperialism, and peasant exploitation. It expressed Chinese nationalism as well as a demand for radical social change.
What were the major differences between the Russian and Chinese revolutions?
The Russian Revolution lasted for only a year, while the Chinese Revolution lasted for several decades. The Chinese imperial system had collapsed in 1911, under the pressure of foreign imperialism, its own inadequacies, and mounting internal opposition. Unlike Russia, where intellectuals had been discussing socialism for half a century or more before the revolution, the ideas of Karl Marx were barely known in China in the early twentieth century. When the CCP was fighting for control of China they had a much tougher opponent (Nationalist Party) compared to the Bolsheviks. Also, Chinese peasants didn't rise up spontaneously against their landlords, as Russian peasants had. The Bolsheviks gained support by urging Russian withdraw from the highly unpopular First World War, the CCP won support by aggressively pursuing the struggle against Japanese invaders during World War 2.
Why did communist regimes generate terror and violence on such a massive scale?
Despite their totalitarian tendencies, the communist societies of the Soviet Union and China were laced with conflict. Under both Stalin and Mao, those conflicts erupted in a search for enemies that disfigured both societies. An elastic concept of "enemy" came to include not only surviving remnants from the prerevolutionary elites but also, and more surprisingly, high-ranking members and longtime supporters of the Communist Party who allegedly had been corrupted by the bourgeois. Refracted through the lend of Marxist thinking, these people became class enemies who had betrayed the revolution and were engaged in a vast conspiracy, often linked to foreign imperialists, to subvert the socialist enterprise and restore capitalism
How did the Cold War become globalized, leading to prolonged "hot wars" in Asia and Latin America?
The extension of communism into Asia, China, Korea, and Vietnam globalized the cold war and occasioned its most destructive and prolonged "hot wars".
Why did direct military confrontation never occur between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War?
A single bomb in a single instant could have obliterated any major city in the world. The detenation of even a small fraction of the weapons then in the arsenals of the Soviet Union and the United States could have reduced the target countries to radioactive rubble and social chaos. Responsible scientists seriously discussed the possible extinction of the human speices under such conditions. Awareness of this possibility is surely the primary reason that no shooting war of any kind occurred between the two superpowers
In what ways did the United States play a global role after World War II?
World War 2 and the Cold War provided the context for the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, playing a role that has often been compared to that of Great Britain in the nineteenth century. Much of that effort was driven by the perceived demands of the cold war, during which the United States spearheaded the Western effort to contain a worldwide communist movement that seemed to be advancing. The United States was the only major industrial country to escape the physical devastation of the war on its own soil. As World War 2 ended with Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan in ruins, the United States was clearly the World's most productive economy. "The whole world is hungry for American goods." Americans sent their capital abroad in growing amounts. Huge American firms such as General Motors, Ford, Mobil, Sears, General Electric, and Westinghouse established factories, offices, and subsidiaries in many countries and sold their goods locally. U.S. culture also spreaded to other countries. In music jazz, the rock and roll, and most recently rap has found receptive audiences abroad. By 1990s American movies took about 70% of the market in Europe, and in 2012 some 33,000 McDonald's restaurants in 119 countries served 68 million customers every day
How does Kovaly describe the censorship and political repression in Czechoslovakia during the early years of the Cold War?
They were completely cut off from any sort of news that involves positive that is going on in the west. The Iron Curtain had come down and cut them off from the rest of the world. All they ever read about the West was news of strikes which, apparently, took place all the time and everywhere, and of the persecution of Communists. The few books by Western authors that had been translated at the time gave such a grim picture of life in the West that they could only conclude that the Party was right, that the West had reached the terminal stages of moral and economic decay. Very few people listened to foreign broadcasts such as Radio Free Europe or the BBC, partly out of fear, but mainly because the broadcasts were so effectively jammed that it was almost impossible to understand what was being said.
How does Kovaly describe the steadily deteriorating quality of life in Czechoslovakia during the Cold War?
Mass amounts of people started getting falsely accused of crimes that they didn't commit and they wouldn't be released from jail. There started to be a mass housing shortage so multiple families would be crammed into one apartment, derived of all comfort and privacy. In order to make room for the young people many retired people were forcibly moved to the country, sometimes into summer cottages situated in remote areas and unfit for year round habitation. Many elderly people who did not belong to the working class were denied their old age pensions and lived in dismal poverty. Also, there were endless lines in front of stores. There were shortages of practically every household staple. Every few months, there were new rumors about an upcoming currency devaluation. People would panic, buying up anything they could find. Suspicion became so prevalent that no one trusted anyone else. By 1951, the atmosphere in Prague was almost as bad as it was during the war. No one dared to speak out loud, and hardly a week passed without news of someone's arrest. There were a number of suicides, some quite suspicious, some entirely understandable.
Why did it begin to dawn on the people of Czechoslovakia that they were the victims of a political conspiracy directed by the Communist Party?
It dawned on them when they saw people that they were close to getting arrested and not soon after released, because they've known them for quite some time and know that they aren't a traitor.
How were conditions for political prisoners in the Soviet Union and in Argentina, a U.S. ally and recipient of over a billion dollars in U.S. military aid since 1946?
Terrible. They would be held captive for years and would be constantly tortured. One women described how guards on one occasion forced her through a hallway and slammed her against a wall. They then dragged her across the floor while simultaneously beating her. They then tied her feet to her hands, which were already handcuffed, and she was left like that for one week. The guards then reappeared and one told her that she should talk out of her own good because the other guard that accompanied him was crazy. She was also threatened of being raped. She was also electrocuted and guards would ejaculate on her.
What role did the School for the Americas play in the U.S. fight against Communism in Latin America?
They would train the soldiers and policeman of other countries so that they could fight communism by capturing suspected communists.
Why was Marxist ideology attractive to Latin American nationalists?
Marxist historical analysis made persuasive sense to Latin American nationalists bent on dismantling neocolonialism. The Marxist view of capitalism, highlighting class exploitation, seemed an apt description of Latin American experience, The Leninist theory of imperialism suggesting that a privileged class within the dominated countries would profit from collaboration with the outsiders; imperial plan also seemed quite accurate in Latin America, the United States hated and feared Marxism so many Latin Americans found that simply a further incentive to study it.
What did revolution mean to Latin America's Marxists?
Marxists meant not simply a new better government, but rather a full reshuffling of the social deck, pulling down the well to do and powerful who had enjoyed their privileges for so long in the presence of misery (worse at the expense of misery) and redistributing the wealth among everybody
How were the life trajectories of Franklin Torres and Carlos Ingles shaped by El Salvador's civil war in the 1980s?
Both men fled El Salvador due to violence, and when they fled to the United States they were seeking refuge/safety, but both got caught up in drugs/gangs which led to their deportation. Torres later lost his life due to drugs after he was deported back to El Salvador. Ingles was attempting to raise a family in the United States, but was deported. His initial deportation started the cycle in which he would return to the U.S., but would later be deported again. He was eventually killed in El Salvador even though he claimed that he was no longer involved with gangs.
What is the overall financial situation of El Salvador's gangs, especially at the ground level? What is their main source of income?
The lower level gang members are paid very little (if at all) (lower than minimum wage). The gangs main source of income is from extorting local businesses (about 70%).
How did the Little Devil of Hollywood wind up as the leader of the MS-13 gang?
Since he came from Los Angeles he was perceived as high status which he took advantage of which led to him taking power.
Why has the number of migrant families heading north from Central America surged in the past year?
Its due to the brutal gangs that are taking over their communities. They try to recruit boys, and attempt to get girls to be their brides. They also require constant payment (extortion). The slogan is, "Comply, flee, or die". Most families aren't even aware that they can seek asylum in other countries. All they are trying to do is find a safer place to live
What role did nationalism and the ideal of national self-determination play in the demise of Europe's (and later the Soviet Union's) empires?
It motivated people to come together in rebellion against their current rulers in attempt to achieve independence.
What other international circumstances and social changes contributed to the end of colonial empires in the twentieth century?
The rhetoric of Christianity, Enlightenment thought, and material progress sat awkwardly with the realities of colonial racism, exploitation, and poverty. The increasingly democratic values of European states ran counter to the essential dictatorship of colonial rule. The ideal of national self-determination was profoundly at odds with the possession of colonies that were denied any opportunity to express their own national character. The enormously powerful force of nationalism, having earlier driven the process of European empire building, now played a major role in its disintegration. Colonial rule, in this argument, dug its own grave. At the international level, the world wars had weakened Europe, while discrediting any sense of European moral superiority. Both the United States and the Soviet Union, the new global super powers, generally opposed the older European colonial empires, even as they created empire like international relationships of their own. Meanwhile the United Nations provided a prestigious platform from which to conduct anticolonial agitation. All of this contributed to the global illegitimacy of empire, a novel and stunning transformation of social values that was enormously encouraging to Africans and Asians seeking political independence. Also, at the same time, social and economic circumstances within the colonies themselves generated the human raw material for anticolonial movements. By the early twentieth century in Asia and the mid-twentieth century in Africa, as second or third generation of Western-educated elites, largely male, had risen throughout the colonial world. These young men were thoroughly familiar with European culture; they were deeply aware of the gap between its values and its practices; they no longer viewed colonial rule as a vehicle for their peoples' progress as their fathers had; and they increasingly on immediate independence. Also, a growing number of ordinary men and women became receptive to this message and also started to believe that independence held great compromise.
What immediate challenges did postcolonial Africa face that inhibited political consolidation?
The relationship between the nationalist leaders and their followers was frequently fraught with tensions. The intellectuals that would rule the newly independent nations were typically closer to Europe or America that they were to the primitive Islamic culture of Java and Sumatra. Thus struggles for independence were rarely if ever cohesive movements of uniformly oppressed people. More often, they were fragile alliances representing different classes, ethnic groups, religions, or regions. Beneath the common goal of independence, they struggled with one another over questions of leadership, power, strategy, ideology, and the distribution of material benefits, even as they fought and negotiated with their colonial rulers. The very notion of "national self-government" posed obvious but often contentious questions: What group of people constituted the "nation" that deserved to rule itself? And who should speak for it?
What led to the erosion of democracy and the establishment of military government in much of Africa after independence?
Among the new states of Africa, for example, few retained their democratic institutions beyond the initial post-independence decade. Many of the apparently popular political parties that had led the struggle for independence lost mass support and were swept away by military coups. Other states evolved into one-party systems, and still others degenerated into personal tyrannies or dictatorships. The economic disappointments of independence also contributed to the erosion of support for democracy. By almost any measure, African economic performance since independence has been the poorest in the developing world. As a result, college and high school graduates were unable to find the white-collar careers they expected; urban migrants had little opportunity for work; farmers received low prices for their cash crops; consumers resented shortages and inflation; and millions of impoverished and malnourished peasants lived on the brink of starvation. Further resentments arose from the privileges of the relatively well educated elite who had found high paying jobs in the growing bureaucracies of the newly independent states. Such grievances often found expression in ethnic conflict, as Africa's immense cultural diversity became intensely politicized. These economic disappointments, class resentments, and ethnic conflicts provided the context for numerous military takeovers.
What was Kwame Nkrumah political vision for Africa?
He claimed that Africa must find a solution to their problems, and that the only solution can be found in African unity. Divided we are weak; united, Africa could become one of the greatest forces for good in the world. He claimed that individually the independent states of Africa, some of them potentially rich, some poor, can do little for their people. He believed that together by mutual help they can achieve much. But the economic development of the continent must be planned and pursued as a whole. A loose confederation designed only for economic cooperation would not provide the necessary unity of purpose. Only a strong political union can bring about full and effective development of our natural resources for the benefit of our people. We have to prove that greatness is not to be measured in stockpiles of atom bombs. I believe strongly and sincerely that with the deep rooted wisdom and dignity, the innate respect for human lives, the intense humanity that is our heritage, the African race, united under one federal government, will emerge not as just another world block to flaunt its wealth and strength, but as a Great Power whose greatness is indestructible because it is not built on fear, envy and suspicion, nor won at the expense of others, but founded on hope, trust, friendship and directed to the good of all mankind
Why was 1960 called "the Year of Africa?
For the inspiring change that swept the continent. This was the year in which South Africa shook the world and made them realize the horrors of white minority rule as South African police fired into a crowd of peaceful black protesters, killing sixty-nine in full view of photographers and reporters. Also, in this year seventeen African territories gained independence from the strong arm of European colonial rule. These seventeen nations joined the United Nation's General Assembly and gave greater voice to the non-Western world.
What impact did the Cold War have on Africa after decolonization?
Western powers viewed African independence through the lens of the Cold War, which rendered African leaders as either pro-West or pro-East; there was little acceptable middle ground. Natively, most African leaders believed that they could navigate the political land mines of the Cold War through political neutrality. Nonetheless, as Africans declared themselves as nonaligned, pro-West, or Marxist sympathizers, Cold War politics deprived them of the freedom to truly shape their political paths. Combined with the strong residue of the colonial political structure, African leaders designed their internal and external politics mindful of the Western powers' vigilance against socialist or communist influences.
According to Frantz Fanon, who did neo-colonialism in Africa benefit?
Neo-colonialism benefited African politicians and the small middle class but did not benefit the national majorities. The result was tension between the ruling classes and the majority population.
What factors facilitated the intervention of the former colonial powers in Africa's internal affairs?
The failure to dismantle the internal political structures imposed by European colonial regimes allowed ethnic and regional-based political competition (which acted as such a strong obstacle to national unity and progressive rule) to remain at the core of local and national political structures. Generally, the absence of national identities and political movements facilitated the continued intervention of the former colonial powers in Africa's internal affairs. In addition, the senior administrators who ran the colonies were removed with European rule, to be replaced by Africans with far less experience. Moreover, the political system that African leaders inherited was structured to benefit the evolving ruling classes with little regard for the needs of the people. In addition, with few exceptions, European powers continued to dominate the economic affairs of the former colonies. Under European rule, people were forced to grow cash crops. This practice continued after independence, and the farmers remained vulnerable to the vagaries of the world market. A fall in world prices created political instability.
Why did the U.S. help remove Kwame Nkrumah from power?
Kwame Nkrumah believed in the political and economic unification of the African continent. A federally unified state, he argued, would allow Africa to pool resources to rebuild the continent for the benefit of its people as opposed to multinational corporations. Although, from a Western standpoint, Nkrumah forged alliances that increasingly placed him in the camp of the Eastern Bloc. Western governments understood Nkrumah's agenda to be socialist and worried about his influence on other African leaders. There are debates about the forces behind the coup that overthrew him in February 1966, but there is strong evidence from the State Department Archives that the United States was interested in removing him from power and that they worked to manipulate the international cocoa price to fuel dissatisfaction with his regime.
Why did the U.S. help remove Patrice Lumumba?
Western powers viewed Lumumba as dangerous and vulnerable to falling under Soviet sway, and they quickly collaborated on a plan with the United Nations' assistance to undermine him. He served as prime minister for fewer than seven months before he was deposed and assassinated as part of a plot drawn up by the United States, Belgium, and their allies within the Congo. Because Western powers feared that the country's resources would be nationalized or, even worse, be made available to the Soviet Union, they thought it necessary to have a pro-Western government installed, regardless of its legitimacy within the Congo or its commitment to democracy and development.
How and why did the U.S. destabilize the democratically elected, post-independence government of Angola, leading to tremendous destruction in that country?
They did it because the government that was in control was backed by Cuba and the Soviet Union (Both Communist nations). The United States destabilized the government by funding the UNITA (led by Savimbi) who was seen as a "terrorist" in Angola, but was seen as a "freedom fighters" by the U.S. The United States funded Savimbi since he declared himself as anti-Marxist. Thus, between 1986 and 1991 the United States spent 250 million dollars on a covert operation in Angola and aid to Savimbi. Essentially, the U.S. started a twenty-seven-year civil war which was so destructive that the UNICEF declared Angola as the worst place in the world to be a child.
What have been the benefits of Chinese economic influence in Nigeria?
Across this populous African nation, low-cost Chinese goods are everywhere, evidence of Beijing's growing dominance in global trade. The trade flow has helped keep life affordable for millions of Nigerian families, at a time when the country is struggling with economic stagnation and plunging prices, as well as the deadly costs of the Boko Haram insurgency. China committed 60 billion dollars in development assistance to the continent. To support its swelling trade in Nigeria, China is funneling billions of dollars to build roads, rail lines, airport terminals, power plants and other desperately needed infrastructure.
What have been the disadvantages of Chinese economic influence in Nigeria?
Faulty Chinese electrical wiring, outlets, and power strips have been connected to dozens of house fires. China's highly competitive manufacturing sector has devastated many smaller-scale rivals across Africa, Asia and Latin America. In Kano, angry protesters in the streets blame widespread joblessness on China, which is manufacturing African fabric designs in shimmering hues more cheaply than Nigeria. Employment in Nigeria's textile and apparel sector has plummeted to 20,000 people, from 600,000 two decades ago.
How is China replicating old (neo-) colonial patterns in Africa?
They are selling their products to countries at very low prices which puts other manufacturers in those countries out of business. For example, they are selling so much to Nigeria and in order to keep the officials from restricting their trade they have been providing them with money so that they can rebuild their infrastructure.
Despite Africa's continuing challenges, what indicators point to steady growth of Africa's middle class?
the new middle classes have raised their voices in demanding clean and accountable government and public services. A study by Nic Cheeseman of Oxford University, found that in Kenya the richer people were the more likely they were to support democracy (and vote for the opposition). More recent data from EIU Canback, a consultancy (and sister-company of The Economist), show some growth (see chart) in the decade to 2014 but it is painfully slow
What indicators show that Africa's middle class isn't steadily growing?
step beyond the air-conditioned malls that are popping up like meerkats across the continent, and it is clear how thin this emerging middle class is. Just a few miles down the road from Accra's coffee-connoisseurs are the columns of smoke that billow above Agbogbloshie, a digital dumping ground. Here hundreds of men risk their health burning old electronics for useful parts. Leave the capital altogether and the celebrated middle class grows harder still to spot: high-rises give way to huts, suits to shoelessness. The Pew Research Centre, an American outfit, reckons that just 6% of Africans qualify as middle class, which it defines as those earning $10-$20 a day. On this measure the number of middle-income earners in Africa barely changed in the decade to 2011. The puzzling question posed by these data is why the middle class is so small after a decade in which economic growth has averaged more than 5% a year, about twice as fast as population growth. One reason is that the proceeds of economic growth are shared very unequally. In recent years inequality has increased alongside growth in most parts of Africa. Another reason is that poverty in many parts of Africa is so deep that even though incomes may have doubled for millions of people, they are now merely poor rather than extremely poor.
What explains the rapid end of the communist era?
There were two major problems that contributed to the end of the communist era. The first was their economy. Despite their early success communist economies by the late 1970s showed no signs of catching up to the more advanced capitalist countries. The highly regimented Soviet economy in particular was largely stagnant; its citizens were forced to stand in long lines for consumer goods and complained endlessly about their poor quality and declining availability. The second was the general problem with communist countries morals. The horrors of Stalin's Terror and the gulag, of Mao's Cultural Revolution, of something approaching genocide in communist Cambodia wore away at communist claims to moral superiority over capitalism.
How did the end of communism in the Soviet Union differ from communism's demise in China?
The "miracle year" took place all over Europe (including the Soviet Union) which was when popular movements toppled despised communist governments one after another all across the region. In China following the death of their towering revolutionary leader Mao Zedong (1976) the CCP over the next several decades abandoned almost everything that had been associated with Maoist communism, even as the party retained its political control of the country
How might the U.S. global presence be seen as an "informal empire," one which became particularly dominant after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the cold war?
The United States has been seen as an "informal empire" after the collapse of the Soviet Union due to their economic penetration, political pressure, and periodic military action sought to create societies and governments compatible with the values and interests of the dominant power, but without directly governing large populations for long periods. In its economic dimension, American dominance has been termed an "empire of production," which uses its immense wealth to entice or intimidate potential collaborators. Some scholars have emphasized the United States' frequent use of force around the world, while others have focused attention on the "soft power" of its cultural attractiveness, its political and cultural freedoms, the economic benefits of cooperation, and the general willingness of many to follow the American lead voluntarily.
In what respect did various religious fundamentalisms (Christian, Hindu, and Muslim) of the twentieth century express hostility to global modernity?
They expressed hostility because many features of the modern world appeared threatening to established religion. The scientific and secular focus of global modernity challenged the core beliefs of religion, with its focus on an unsen realm of reality. Furthermore, the social upheavals connected with capitalism, industrialization, and globalization thoroughly upset customary class, family, and gender relationships that had long been sanctified by religious tradition. Nation-states, often associated with particular religions were likewise undermined by the operation of a global economy and challenged by the spread of alien cultures. Although fundamentalisms everywhere have looked to the past for ideals and models, their rejection of modernity was selective, not wholesale. What they sought was an alternative modernity; infused with particular religious values
In what different ways did Islamic renewal express itself?
At the level of personal life many people became more religiously observant, attending mosque, praying regularly, and fasting. Islamic governments sought to anchor themselves in Islamic rhetoric and practice. Another face of religious renewal was the overthrow of thought to be compromised regimes in the Islamic world, most successfully in Iran in 1979, but also in Afghanistan (1996) and parts of northern Nigeria (2000). Here Islamic movements succeeded in coming to power and they began to implement a program of Islamization based on the sharia. Lastly, Islamic revolutionaries took aim at hostile foreign powers.
How did Osama bin Laden justify attacks on Americans?
"For over seven years the United States has been occupying the lands of Islam in the holiest of place, the Arabian Peninsula, plundering its riches, dictating to its rulers, humiliating its people, and terrorizing its neighbors, and turning its bases in the Peninsula into a spearhead through which to fight the neighboring Muslim peoples. Despite the great devastation inflicted on the Iraqi people by the crusader Zionist alliance, and despite the huge number of those killed, which has exceeded 1 million... despite all this, the Americans are once again trying to repeat the horrific massacres, as though they are not content with the protracted blockade imposed after the ferocious war on the fragmentation and devastation"
What does Sheikh Kabir Helminski argue that Islam stands for?
Islamic civilization, which developed out of the revelation of the Qur'an in the seventh century, affirms the truth of previous revelations, affirms religious pluralism, cultural diversity, and human rights, and recognizes the value of reason and individual conscience. Islamic civilizations have a long history of encouraging religious tolerance and guaranteeing the rights of minorities. The reason for this is that the Qur'an explicitly acknowledges that the diversity of religions is part of the Divine Plan and no religion has a monopoly on truth or virtue.
How did Christian fundamentalism influence U.S. actions and policies in Iraq?
Soldiers and high ranking officials (Including George W. Bush) felt that their actions were justified against Muslims because they were fighting against the Claiphate.
Why did American interrogators claim that Mohamedou Ould Slahi was a terrorist
He fought in Afghanistan in the early 1990s with Al Qaeda (then indirectly supported by the United States); his distant cousin and sometime brother-in-law became a key bin Laden spiritual adviser; he had studied in Germany, like the 9/11 conspirators; had prayed at the same Montreal mosque as the "millennium" plotter; had known the 9/11 planner Ramzi bin al-Shibh
What techniques were used to extract a confession from Slahi? Do you feel these techniques, and Slahi's imprisonment more generally, were justified?
He had been flown, blindfolded, shackled and diapered, months of strictest isolation, weeks of sleep deprivation, extremes of temperature and sound, he was shackled in stress positions, including hours of standing painfully bent over with his hands shackled to the floor; periodic dousing with very cold water that left him "shaking like a Parkinson's patient", beatings about the face and ribs; repulsive sexual abuse; threats to kill him and to kidnap his mother and other family members; and unending interrogation without sleep
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