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During what time period did American Romanticism occur?


How did Romantics view the world?

Romantics saw cities as places of moral ambiguity, corruption, and death.

Romantic saw the countryside as

a place of independence, moral clarity, and healthful living.

Rationalists saw cities as

places for opportunity, success, and self-realization.

What dpes a "Romantic Trip to the Country" symbolise?

Basically, it is a journey away from the corruption of civilization and the limits of rational thought and toward the integrity of nature and the freedom of the imagination.


idea that feeling and intuition were more valuable than reason. The imagination, spontaneity, individual feelings, and wild nature were of greater value than reason, logic, planning, and civilization.

In what two ways did Romantics want to discover higher truths?

1. Exploration of the past and exotic, even supernatural, realms
2.The contemplation of the natural world until beauty and truth were revealed

Novelists looked to ______and development of the frontier for inspiration

westward expansion

Characteristics of the Romantic's "New Hero" are:

Youthfulness, innocence, intuitiveness, closeness to the natural world.

The Hero of the Age of Reason can be defined as:

Worldly, educated, sophisticated, bent on making a place for himself in civilization. (Romantics wanted to move away from this character.)

During what time period did American Realism occur?


Writers and speakers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Walt Whitman were optimistic and believed the civil war showed:

the true character and strength of Americans.

Herman Melville viewed civial war stories as:

as stories of humanity's basic evil.

Civil war volunteers returned extremely defeated and ________.


Writing from the war was in what 3 forms?

Letters, diaries, and journalistic writings (i.e. newspapers).

The Realist movement started after the:

Civil War

Realism aims at portraying:

the common course of ordinary life.

The ordinary settings and far-from-idealized characters that Realism portrays includes:

slums, industrial city life, poor factory workers, corrupt politicians, common people.

In Realism the hero is

no longer idealized as a young, adventurous person in a fantasy world or getting everything he or she wants.

Realism represented the way

ordinary people lived, dressed, thought, felt, and talked and tried to explain why ordinary people behaved the way they did.

REALISM portrayed

true social conditions and human motivation.

Novelists relied on their own observations and instincts and on what sciences to explain human and animal behavior:

Biology, psychology, and sociology.

Regionalism emphasizes:

a specific geographic setting and makes use of the speech and manner of the people who live in that region.

regionalists were often______ and ______in their depiction of character and social environment.

unrealistic and sentimental

One of the best-known regionalists was which famous author? (Wrote Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer)

Mark Twain

Naturalist writers relied heavily on the growing scientific disciplines of:

psychology and sociology.

Naturalists believed that human behavior was determined by:

forces beyond the individual's power.

To naturalists, human life was

a grim, losing battle.

Beginning around 1560 Puritans sought to:

Purify the Church of England .

When was the Puritan movement?


Puritans wanted _____ forms of worship and
church organization


To _______ religion was a personal, inner experience


_____said there was no man or institution
between the individual and_________

Puritans and God

Puritans fled to America to escape

persecution in England.

When did Puritans settle in America?

Between 1620 and 1640

Puritans believed that most people would be damned due to

Adam and Eve's sin but that Christ
was born to save particular people.

Uncertain who was__________and
who was not

saved (an "elect")

__________ was a very emotional experience for Puritans.

Feeling the grace of God arriving

Puritans showed_____ in outward behavior


Due to these beliefs, Puritans valued

self reliance,industriousness, temperance, and

"Live like a saint in hopes of being one" best describes


Puritans believed there was a contract
between_____ and_________.
This led to a constitutional democracy.

God and humanity

A problem faced by Puritans caused by their beliefs was

saintly "elect" had more influence in
the government, so views tended not to be


the person telling the story. A narrator can be in 1st , 2nd, or 3rd Person

first person narrator

A point of view in which a narrator, referred to as "I," who is a character in the story and relates the actions through his or her own perspective, also revealing his or her own thoughts

Second person narrator

a character, "you," who tells the story and necessarily has a limited point of view; may be seen as an extension of the reader, and thus should be used only in limited circumstances

third person narrator

the narrator is an observer of the action but only tells the thoughts and feelings of one character

omniscient narrator

a narrator who is able to know, see, and tell all, including the inner thoughts and feelings of the characters


A device in literature where an object represents an idea.


an apparently contradictory statement that actually contains some truth


the opposite of what is expected


express the same message in different words


a character's incentive or reason for behaving in a certain manner; that which impels a character to act


the overall emotion created by a work of literature


the attitude of a writer, usually implied, toward the subject or audience


A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes


a word or group of words in a literary work which appeal to one or more of the senses: sight, taste, touch, hearing, and smell

external conflict

a struggle between opposing forces

internal conflict

A struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions within a single character.


a nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.


1840-1855 focused on the limitations of mankind and its potential destructiveness of human spirit

Henry David Thoreau

American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.

American Renaissance

Transportation revolution and romanticism contributed to this development. New market for fiction. Emphasized emotion and inner feeling and created a more democratic literature, accessible to everyone. Women also contributed literary works. Cooper, Emerson, Thoreau, Fuller and Whitman were all involved in this movement.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.

Lawrence and Lee

The Night Thoreau Spent in Jail

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".

Ambrose Bierce

Realist. Topographer during Civil War. Magic Realism, Psychorealism, Stream of Consciousness. "Occurence at Owl Creek Bridge."

F. Scott Fitzgerald

a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl., Modernism--The Great Gatsby; Winter Dreams


a movement in which writers and artists between 1870 and 1914 rebelled against the traditional literary and artistic styles that had dominated European cultural life since the Renaissance

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

talks about people who dont believe in god. uses repition, imagery and metaphors. and that these people will go to hell. Also talks about gods mercy and the relationship between god and humanity., Jonathan Edwards - Colonial / Puritansim - wrath of God, waters are rising and guilt is increasing, floods rush forth any moment (warning citizens that if they do not be good God will unleash his vengeance on all)

The Crucible

(Arthur Miller, 1953). Miller chose the 1692 Salem witch trials as his setting, but the work is really an allegorical protest against the McCarthy anti-Communist "witch-hunts" of the early 1950s. In the story, Elizabeth Proctor fires servant Abigail Williams after she finds out Abigail had an affair with her husband. In response, Abigail accuses Elizabeth of witchcraft. She stands trial and is acquitted, but then another girl accuses her husband, John, and as he refuses to turn in others, he is killed, along with the old comic figure, Giles Corey. Also notable: Judge Hathorne is a direct ancestor of the author Nathaniel Hawthorne.


an essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, emphasizing the importance of the individual or , Independence: the capacity to rely on one's own capabilities, and to manage one's own affairs.

Civil Disobedience

Henry David Thoreau advocated this process of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or nation when the civil laws are unjust.


an American book written by noted Transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau. The work is part personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, satire, and manual for self reliance. Published in 1854, it details Thoreau's experiences over the course of two years in a cabin he built near ________ Pond

The Night Thoreau Spent in Jail

- play by: Robert Edwin Lee and
Jerome Lawrence
-set during spanish war
-based on Thoreau's one night in jail for not paying taxes.

Moby Dick

an example of romanticism that explored good and evil, faith, pride and stubbornness. Considered one of the best American novels of all time., whale of a story and the greatest example of American literature, written by Herman Melville

An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

1. Peyton Faruquhar is tricked. Then as he is hung he has a day dream about dodging bullets and amazing stuff. the last sentence shows that it was all a fantasy and that he was hung and died and that is it. 2. Ambrose Bierce, Farguar was tricked by the union soldiers. They tell him to destroy the owl creek bridge and the union soldiers capture him when he arrives. His life flashed before his eyes, his senses were heightened, and he has a vision of escaping death and running home to his wife.

The Minister's Black Veil

-by Nathaniel Hawthorne
•SUMMARY:Mr. Hooper was in the clergy and wore a veil for mourning. People were outraged at this. He was a good preacher, lacks energy, slight gloom. They feel he's ghostlike because of the veil. Corpse shuddered when they saw him. At a wedding they excpected doom b.c of veil and more to a funeral. He shuddered when he saw himself. Everyone has a veil. Veil is a symbol,he'll wear forever for original sin. He has many sorrows or maybe secret sin. Mortal veil. His conscience tortured him, no love could come to him, he brings converts to the right. He was feared. The veil sepereted him form the world. A minister will lift the veil of eternity but no, he died. Everyone has a veil but they run from him.All are secret sinners,visual reminder of own guilt. They think he's commited a crime but everyone has.

The Story of an Hour

Kate Chopin, Mrs. Mallard lost her husband and deals with the loss happily, Mrs. Mallard is informed that her husband has died in a railroad accident from his friend Richards. She breaks down in tears in front of Richards and her sister Louise. Later, she goes up to her room and contemplates what this means for her future. She critiques the institution of marriage, saying that it is subtly and unintentionally oppressive. She realizes that she is glad to be free of her marriage. However, when she comes downstairs she sees her husband, despite Richards' attempts to shield him from her view. It turns out that there was a mistake in reporting the list of the dead and he is indeed alive. Mrs. Mallard dies of a heart attack to end the story.

The Great Gatsby

(Nick Carraway moves to NY City to make his fortune - rich neighbor, Jay Gatsby, in love with Daisy Buchanan (Nick's cousin) who is married to weathy Tom Buchanan. Gatsby stares at Buchanan's green light across the bay.- Nick meets dishonest cheater Jordan (Daisy's friend) who reveals that Tom is having an affair with a Myrtle - Daisy never shows up at Gatsby's parties - Nick helps Gatsby encounter Daisy who becomes his mistress Daisy accidently runs over escaping Myrtle who becomes his mistress - Daisy accidently runs over escaping Myrtle but Gatsby takes the blame -Myrtle's husband, George Wilson, kills Gatsby and then himself - Nick is disgusted and moves back to the Midwest - Tom and Myrtle carry on with their lives)

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