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FINAL 300 P2
Terms in this set (54)
More than ____ the world's population is bilingual.
Is there a lot of people in other countries that are bilingual?
What about in the US?
Outside the US/other countries well over half are bilingual
In US, it is less than half but number is rising
What does L1 mean? What does L2 mean?
First language acquired/exposed to
Second language acquired/exposed to
What does being bilingual mean?
Exposure time of L1 and L2
2 Varieties of Bilingualism:
Name 3 different ways a child can acquire a second language to be bilingual:
1.) Parents speak different languages (1 parent 1 language or both parents bilingual)
2.) L1 home--> L2 School
3.) L1 home --> L2 community
What is simultaneous bilingualism? What are the 2 time frames one must acquire an L2 to be a simultaneous bilingual person?
Bilingual First Language Acquisition
1.) Taught 2 languages from birth
2.) Taught 2 languages from 1st year of life
What is sequential bilingualism? What is the time frame for this acquisition of L2?
Childhood second language acquisition
Exposed to L2 after 3 years of age, L1 has been established
How much does the age at which L2 is introduced matter?
How will we find out when exposure to L2 matters?
Through research of L1 and L2 exposure
What is an ethnolinguistic community?
A community of speakers of a language or dialect
In the majority of most ethnolinguistic communities the language is what? (4 things)
Used, valued, higher status/higher power, international support
In a minority ethnolinguistic community what is different?
All of this it is less valued, less used, less status/power, and little international support
Is a child more likely to maintain fluency in the L1 if she is a member of an ethnolinguistic minority?
No, ethnolinguistic majority communities help fluency
Is a majority or minority ethnolinguistic community a continuum?
2 questions about simultaneous bilingualism?
Language differentiation between the two L1's
Does bilingualism develop similar to monolingual development
What are the 3 hypotheses of simultaneous development?
2.) Differentiation- Autonomous
3.) Differentiation- Interdependent
Explain Volterra and Taeschner's 3-stage model:
Stage 1= 1 vocal system with 2 languages
Stage 2= 1 set up syntactic rules for 2 languages (where we begin to see some distinctions between both languages)
Stage 3= Separate systems completely
The Fusion Hypothesis for Simultaneous Bilingualism is difficult for some to side with. Why?
Because people think that they are separate from the beginning. And this entire model states that they begin conjoined then separate out
What is some evidence in favor for phonological differentiation in simultaneous bilingualism? (This is hypothesis 2 differentiation-autonomous)
- Babies exposed to L2 can differentiate between L1 and L2
- Babies with only 1 language can differentiate between their own and another but NOT between 2 unknown ones
What does the above evidence help prove?
the Differentiated- Autonomous theory and the phonological differentiation idea that babies from birth have separate phonological systems
What about evidence against in Simultaneous Bilingualism for Differentiated- Autonomous for phonological differentiation? Explain
PHONEMIC CONTRASTS...Sometimes babies can perceive difference through the 1st year and sometimes they favor 1 language.
So phonemic contrast (under Simultaneous Bilingualism for Differentiated- Autonomous) has what type of shape and why?
U shaped curve because (study example) at 4 months babies could differentiate, 8 months they couldn't differentiate phonemic differences in languages, then at 1 year they could again
What about phonological differentiation proof in production of babies?
Some studies show babies produce balling from 2 different languages and some studies show they only have 1 system
What does all of this mean then for in Simultaneous Bilingualism for Differentiated- Autonomous/ phonological differentiation?
That it is INCONCLUSIVE. Sometimes there is proof and sometimes there is none
Differentiation- Interdependent shows evidence for lexical differentiation how? (3 ways)
1.) Children override mutual exclusivity
2.) Overlap vocal
3.) Eye-tracking (can look at something like dog vs. chien but just takes a second longest to process)
In Simultaneous Bilingualism for Differentiated- Interdependent what is evidence for morphosyntactic differentiation? (3 things)
1.) Subject verb agreement changes in languages
2.) Definite articles are used early in some languages and later in others
3.) Word order varies across languages
What is code-switching?
When a person uses 2 different linguistic systems or languages in a sentence or across sentences
Does code switching show proficiency or deficiency?
Could show deficiency (person not know word for something in a language) but mostly proficiency because it shows intelligence in both languages
When will kids tend to code-switch with a conversation partner?
When the convo partner is too
The evidence suggests that simultaneous bilingual learners have: which of the following?
a single, "fused" language system
two separate but interacting language systems
two completely separate language systems
2 separate but interacting language systems
Is the rate at which monolingual and bilingual people learn language the same or different?
Bilingual is a somewhat slower rate because they have 2 words to learn for everything instead of 1
Do monolingual and Bilingual children have similar or different vocabularies when combined?
Similar (few words bilingual knows they know for both)
Do monolingual and Bilingual children have similar or different syntactic errors? What about the rate at which these syntactic errors persist?
Similar syntactic errors
Longer persistence in errors in bilinguals
When does the rate of syntactic errors in bilingual kids stop and become yet again similar to monolinguals?
10 years old
In monolingual and Bilingual children, does input lead to higher proficiency in both?
What do bilingual kids receive less of overall?
Input to BOTH languages. L1 only kids receive lots of input for one thing whereas L1/L2 kids have lots of input but for like half of each language just not all 1 language
When comparing vocabulary size with a monolingual, when does the vocabulary amount learned for bilinguals look less? When does it look even?
When you count both languages as separate, it is below the line compared to monolingual vocabulary amount they know.
But if you count the bilingual kid's 2 languages as just 1 big one, it is equal to the monolingual vocab amount they know.
Relative prestige is a source of variability in bilingual people who have 2 L1s. Why?
If they are not using the minority language as much as their majority language, it can be forgotten or used incorrectly
# of bilingual household members, if siblings use second language, exposure to second language often, are all factors that do what?
Create variability in what L1 for a simultaneous bilingual is used more
Context of language exposure is what?
What is being spoken on Tv, listened to in music, read in books, etc. It effects the language used most or understood
Is there more or less errors in sequential bilinguals than simultaneous bilinguals? Why?
More because of the effect on L2 due to their already established L1
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills takes how many years for Sequential Bilinguals to master? What does this type of conversation require?
2 years, low cognitive demands
How many years does it take to achieve Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency for Sequential Bilinguals? What does this type of setting require?
5-7 years, time in enriched environments to understand this level
What are some factors that create variability in L2 proficiency so sequential bilinguals?
Phonological memory, personality, proficiency in L1, Structural similarity in L1/L2, exposure
do older or younger people learn L2 faster? do older or younger people have a better ultimate attainment for L2?
Younger= attain more longer
Is english being endangered true or false? why?
False because the language that is used by the community is the dominant language
Some consequences (good and bad) of sequential bilingualism on the brain?
Good= metalinguistic awareness, delays dementia, increased executive control
Bad= competition because of L1 and L2 always activated
Bilingual brain damage effects L1 and L2 how?
They both are effected the same way except in rare cases where 1 trumps the other (usually last used or more frequently used)
From brain imaging, what's the main difference in L1 systems vs. l2 systems?
L2 (weaker language) recruits other networks/control systems so they rely on different parts of the brain too for that language
What is Immersion? What does it lead to?
When L2 learners are immersed in complete L2 culture and leads to high proficiency
What is 2-way education? is it successful?
When 2 languages are tough at once to 2 separate types of people learning differing L2s. It is successful.
What is a transfer (has to do with L2 understanding):
What is an example?
When L1 understanding transfers to L2 understanding
Learning to read in 1 language can help literacy in another if both are similar
Specific weakness of SLI depends on what?
What language the child speaks
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