Chapter 13: The Reformation
Terms in this set (24)
The Spread of Renaissance to Northern Europe
Several factors contributed to this:
1. networks of artistic and cultural patronage that crossed regional and political boundaries.
2. Merchants, bankers, clerics, scholars, and university students likewise established contacts between the Italian city-states and the kingdoms, cities, and ecclesiastical centers of northern Europe.
3. Soldiers and nobles who participated in the Italian Wars of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries were exposed to the cultural, artistic, and architectural achievements of Renaissance Italy, even as they invaded, besieged, and conquered Italian city-states.
4. The political and social elites of northern Europe adopted Renaissance humanism's program of education to meet a growing demand for men to serve as courtiers, diplomats, and high-ranking members of the Church.
5. technological innovation: the printing press.
the predominant intellectual and cultural movement of the Renaissance in northern Europe.
They especially applied principles of Renaissance humanism—such as the study of Greek and Latin languages and textual criticism—to the translation and interpretation of religious works.
Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1469-1536)
The leading figure in Christian humanism
In 1516, Erasmus produced his most famous work of Christian humanist scholarship: an authoritative version of the New Testament in Greek accompanied by his own new Latin translation, which became the basis for much future biblical study.
Erasmus urged his readers to be generous, compassionate, humble, and peaceable—in short, to practice the virtues of a model Christian life, instead of worshipping Folly.
Erasmus was especially anxious to encourage such virtuous conduct among kings and princes. For that purpose, he wrote a book entitled The Education of a Christian Prince, published in 1516 and intended for Charles of Habsburg
Erasmus specifically urged princes to avoid war as something destructive to society and contrary to the Christian's pursuit of peace.
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
most famous work, Utopia, depicted an imaginary society (the title is taken from a Greek word and means "nowhere") that differed from sixteenth-century England in many ways.
The spread of print technology had four important consequences
1. printing presses could produce multiple copies of the same text much faster and more cheaply than before
2. print technology made it possible to standardize texts: to correct errors in earlier translations, provide indexes and tables of contents, and add new commentaries to older works.
3. producing and selling printed works became a new kind of employment for urban workers and craftsmen, who soon organized themselves into guilds of printers and booksellers.
4. print technology created a new way for people to exchange ideas and knowledge across geographical and social boundaries.
check drawn on a bank account, except that in this case the bank account was a treasury of good works done by Christian believers over the centuries and managed by the western Christian Church.
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
a professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony
After much intense study, Luther decided that Christian believers could not earn salvation by their actions. Instead, believers had to have faith in God, and in the divine gift of grace which alone provided salvation.
For Luther, the Bible was also the only source of all valid religious beliefs and practices.
Luther argued that all Christians who sought justification by faith and through the Bible were equal before God.
Martin Luther wrote his Ninety-five Theses not only to decry Tetzel's behavior, but also to challenge the Church doctrines and institutions that underpinned the practice of selling indulgences, widely regarded as the start of the Protestant Reformation
Luther's public demands for religious reform
justification by faith, the authority of Scripture, and the priesthood of all believers.
Martin Luther vs indulgence sale
Luther thus challenged the authority of all those who engaged in selling indulgences, or who endorsed the practice.
In order to explain and defend his ideas, Luther wrote three important pamphlets: On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, and The Freedom of a Christian, all published in 1520.
he argued that the papacy's authority was not divinely instituted, and that Germany's secular princes should implement religious reform if the Church's leaders would not do so.
Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther in January 1521
In April of that year, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V summoned Luther to appear at an imperial diet, or assembly of nobles and ecclesiastical leaders, in the city of Worms. When Luther refused to recant his views before the Diet of Worm, Charles V declared him an enemy of the state.
Frederick arranged to have Luther abducted and given refuge in Wartburg Castle. There Luther stayed under Frederick's protection for about a year and devoted himself to writing projects, including a translation of the New Testament into German.
Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (1484-1531)
an admirer of both Erasmus and Luther who became a leading cleric in Zürich, Switzerland. From his position in the Grossmünster, the city's main cathedral, Zwingli preached sermons based on Scripture, condemned indulgences, and emphasized the spiritual equality of all believers.
Luther emphasized that the Eucharist, when properly understood, was a sacred rite that involved the real presence of Christ (see below, and also Chapters 9 and 10). Zwingli disagreed, claiming instead that the Eucharist was a ritual that commemorated Christ's sacrifice without re-creating it in any way.
Anabaptists rejected the practice of infant baptism. Instead, they argued that baptism had to be administered to adults who participated freely in the sacrament, and who understood it as the gateway to joining the church.
Anabaptists refused to participate in many of the civic or communal responsibilities that other Protestant leaders accepted, such as serving in local militias, paying taxes, or swearing oaths of allegiance or obedience.
In 1527, an Anabaptist leader named Michael Sattler (c. 1490-1527) drew up a statement of beliefs and practices known as the Schleitheim Confession. This confession of faith reveals much about the Anabaptists' convictions, as well as their emphasis on a radical separation between religious and secular authority.
Anabaptists were condemned and executed throughout Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, and eastern Europe.
In 1534, the city of Münster in Westphalia (a province within the Holy Roman Empire) was taken over by a group of Anabaptists, they proclaimed Münster to be a new Jerusalem, abolished private property, established polygamy, and exiled from the city anyone who refused to accept the new regime.
John Calvin (1509-1564)
While studying theology at the University of Paris, however, he became attracted to Luther's ideas about religious reform—which university authorities condemned. Calvin had to flee the city.
In geneva, Calvin established the panel of ministers and lay elders known as the Consistory, which was responsible for supervising Genevans' public and private conduct. The Geneva Consistory enforced prohibitions against dancing, gambling, blasphemy, and sexual misconduct. The Consistory also required men and women to demonstrate that they were attending church services, hearing sermons regularly, and learning the principles of their faith through the study of Scripture; some people were summoned repeatedly before the Consistory to show their improvement.
became famous as the model of a godly community, and the city attracted many from France, the Netherlands, and other areas of Europe.
"The Institutes of the Christian Religion"
Institutes represented Calvin's attempt to provide a systematic and comprehensive overview of Protestant theology; he continued to revise and expand it until 1559, when a definitive edition was published.
all Christian believers were predestined by God for salvation or damnation, regardless of their actions during their lifetime. Although predestination was widely accepted by Christian theologians of all kinds, Calvin emphasized it as key to understanding how to live a good Christian life. No one could be certain that he or she was among the elect (i.e, those who were among the saved), but one could strive to live as if one belonged to this group and look for outward, visible signs of divine favor to confirm it.
clerics within the Roman Catholic Church to enact reform from within the institution. Such efforts were aided by Christian humanists like Erasmus and Sir Thomas More (see above), who exposed the church's abuses but refused to reject its authority. Some modern scholars have described these reforms as a "Counter-Reformation"—in other words, as the Roman Catholic Church's response to the attacks of Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and other Protestant leaders.
Council of Trent
Pope Paul III (ruled 1534-1549) convened a general council of the Church to meet at Trent, a city located between Germany and Italy, in 1545. This assembly of cardinals, archbishops, bishops, and theologians was given the task of combating the Protestants' heresy while also reforming the Church itself.
work from 1545 until its final session ended in 1563.
Its decrees upheld many of the beliefs and practices which Protestants denied, and which now became defining features of Catholicism.
The Council of Trent also maintained transubstantiation as the correct interpretation of the Eucharist and papal authority as supreme over all clergy, laity, and church councils.
the Council required priests and bishops to reside in their local areas and personally supervise schools, seminaries, and monasteries to assure that all were in good order.
The Council of Trent is widely regarded as one of the most important councils in the Church's history, comparable in its scope and impact to the Second Vatican Council ("Vatican II," 1962-1965).
A doctrine in Christian theology which includes indicates that the bread and wine used in sacrament of the Encharist are transformed into the body and blood of Christ.
the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Established by a forty-three-year-old Basque nobleman known as Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)
Pope Paul III officially approved the new religious order
The Jesuits became renowned as missionaries
members were expected to obey their superiors' orders just as soldiers obeyed their commanders.
"The Spiritual Exercises"
written by Loyola
a short handbook of religious instruction based on Loyola's own experiences of visions and intense prayer while on a retreat in rural Spain.
described a series of guided meditations which were intended to help the reader achieve a strong and disciplined faith, just as one might develop bodily strength through a program of rigorous physical exercise.
Monasteries and convents offered an institutional expression of these ideas. Men and women who wanted to pursue a life of religious devotion joined communities of like-minded individuals, devoting themselves to prayer and study while separating themselves as much as possible from worldly relationships and temptations (see Chapters 8 and 10). Although the Church viewed marriage as a sacrament, married life was sometimes presented as a lesser alternative to virginity and celibacy—an interpretation which the Council of Trent upheld in its decrees of 1563.
Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises
Statue of Katharina von Bora, who was the wife of Martin Luther, German leader of the Reformation, in Martin Luther Museum in Wittenberg, Germany. Image © Shutterstock, Inc.
Protestant reformers, on the other hand, argued that there was no biblical basis for such views.
Johannes Gutenberg's printing press established in Mainz.
Desiderius Erasmus publishes his Latin translation of the New Testament; Sir Thomas More publishes Utopia.
Martin Luther posts the Ninety-five Theses in Wittenberg against the sale of indulgences.
Luther publishes On the Freedom of a Christian and other pamphlets.
Luther is excommunicated by Pope Leo X (January) and then condemned by Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms (April).
Michael Sattler and other Anabaptists produce the Schleitheim Confession.
Huldrych (Ulrich) Zwingli breaks with Luther after their debate in Marburg.
Ignatius Loyola founds the Society of Jesus; radical Anabaptists take over and govern the city of Münster until 1535.
John Calvin issues the Ecclesiastical Ordinances for Geneva; Loyola publishes The Spiritual Exercises.
The Council of Trent meets and issues decrees.