Chapter 11: Population and Migration
POL 102, Miami University, Payne
Terms in this set (53)
excessive population within an area that lacks enough resources for long-term sustainment
rate at which a population remains stable. to achieve this, fertility rates must average 2.1 children per couple.
argued that because population increases by a geometrical ratio and food supplies increase by an arithmetic ratio, the world would have high rates of population growth and suffer starvation. WRONG
the maximum number of humans or animals that can survive within a given area.
developing countries and population issues
inadequate education, low rates of contraception usage, cultural norms, need for labor, and need to have children to support parents are reasons why population increase is greater in those countries.
Indian case of poverty and overpopulation
more than 400 million indians are in poverty and illiterate yet their population grows 3 people per minute or 48,000 per day.
Women and population
women's level of education stingily influences fertility rates. helps determine factors that affect population growth rates.
discrimination against an individual or group based on sex or gender classifications. strongly influences population decisions.
preference for male children- influences having kids until a boy is born
financial gift given to the husband's family by the wife's family at marriage in many traditional societies. female children are seen as financial and social liability. up to 6 million female fetus' aborted in India from 2000-2010 . Female infanticide has contributed to the gender ratio in india and china
imposed on families in china to limit population growth. those who comply receive a monthly stipend until the child is 14. exceptions include: 1) if the first child has a defect 2) if remarriage, if one partner does not have a child 3) if couples are involved in certain jobs, such as mining 4) if both partners come form families with one child.
disparity of population size between Europe and other countries
1. europe was settled by humans who migrated from Africa into Asia (started smaller)
2. geography and climate discouraged large numbers of people form settling in Europe
3. Confronted with overpopulation europe conquered, colonized, and settled other places
subreplacement fertility regimes
patterns of childbearing resulting in population decline. Russia (communicable diseases, environmental problems, alcohol pouncing, STDs, abortion).
Europe's aging societies
1) life expectancy has climbed
2) huge baby boom 1940s and 1950s
3) declining fertility rates, below replacement rates, increase old proportion
strategies to increase young population in developed countries
1) substantially increasing immigration to offset declining fertility rates
2) postponing or abandoning retirement
3)encouraging higher fertility rates
4) investing more in the education of workers to increase productivity
5) strengthening intergenerational responsibilities within families
6) targeting government-paid benefits to those who need them most,
7) requiring workers to invest for their own retirements
movement of people from one place to another
a person who moves from one country or area to another country or location
migrants living outside their country of origin who are unwilling or unable to return. today due to famine, natural disasters, political, religious, economic oppression.
refugees attempting to obtain permanent residence in the country to which they fled.
one who has fled his or her home but has not left the home country (due to violence, conflict, persecution, or natural disaster)
one who travels to a foreign country, become a permanent resident
movement of people from one continent to another
Gender and Migration
men are more likely to migrate than women. women migrate to rice societies to work in factories, tourism, education, hospitals, businesses, and private homes.
movement of people within a specified region
the most dominant form of migration in both developed and developing countries
families and individuals move from one city to another to find employment, pursue a college degree, or be in a culturally dynamic area.
strategy to encourage economic development of the countryside and relieve population pressures on urban centers.
movement of people based on seasonal demand for labor
movement of people from one country on the way to another
forced and induced migration
involuntary movement of people, often due to a government initiative
movement of people back to the country from which they originally emigrated
negative developments leading many people to leave their homes. Includes abuses of fundamental human rights, forced resettlement programs and expulsion, high levels of violence and political instability, natural disasters, environment problems, and famines, globalization and discrimination compounded by competitive exclusion
governments force resettlement for several reasons...
1. to achieve cultural homogeneity (newly independent countries) (Spain expelled the jews)
2. to subdue a region or a people (Mao in China)
3. to evict dissidents and opponents of the government (Castro)
4. To achieve foreign policy objectives
5. To achieve economic and national security objectives
process by which government allows agrocorporations to monopolize productive land
Unived Nations Geneva Convention
stressed the importance of granting asylum to refugees who have ben persecuted
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
institution that helps with refugees
use of military force in defense of human rights
International Committee of the Red Cross
organization involved in humanitarian operations worldwide. task made difficult by inability or unwillingness of some countries to separate fighters form innocent civilians in refugee camps
United Nations Relief Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
UN agency established to aid in relief, education, and welfare services for Palestinian refugees (1949)
positive developments inducing people to move form their homes. include Freedom, economic opportunities, colonization and financial globalization, globalization, family reunification and cultural ties, sparsely populated areas, availability of educational and cultural opportunities
a community of people living outside their original or ancestral country
cities that contain enough migrants to make them international in scope and appeal
process by which one family member immigrates to a country and then encourages other family members to join him or her.
immigration enterprise zone
areas created to attract immigrants due to underpopulation problems
national quota system
system to limit immigration into the US
agreements between the United States and Mexico to promote the migration of Mexican workers to the United states on a temporary basis (ended 1964)
U.S. operation that deported hundreds of thousands of Mexican migrants
policy of assimilation
French policy allowing man people from its colonies to become residents and citizens of France.
Jean-Marie Le Pen
anti-immigration leader in france
Gastarbeiter rotation system
set german plan for foreign workers to stay one to three years then return home.
migration of highly educated, skilled, and trained people form one country to another
when countries retain an oversupply of skilled individuals
money earned abroad sent by migrants to their home countries