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goal-directed behavior

Clark Hull

developed the behaviorist theory to drive and motivation


a state of physiological equilibrium or stability


an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension


an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior


a simple sugar that is an important source of energy


neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid


the condition of being overweight

Body Mass Index (BMI)

weight divided by height

Set-Point Theory

proposes that body monitors fat cell levels to keep them and weight fairly stable

Settling-Point Theory

proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium

Achievement Motive

The need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence.


The principal class of gonadal hormones in males.


One or more premises used to provide support for a conclusion.


Premises for which no proof or evidence is offered.


Persons who seek emotional-sexual relationships with members of either sex.

Display Rules

Cultural norms that regulate the appropriate expressions of emotions.


A subjective conscious experience (the cognitive component) accompanied by bodily arousal (the physiological component) and by characteristic overt expressions (the behavioral component).


The principal class of gonadal hormones in females.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)

An increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase their activity.

Hedonic Adaptation

An effect that occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantness-unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point, or baseline for comparison, changes.


Persons who seek emotional-sexual relationships with members of the other sex.


Persons who seek emotional-sexual relationships with members of the same sex.

Parental Investment

What each sex invests—in terms of time, energy, survival risk, and forgone opportunities—to produce and nurture offspring.


A device that records autonomic fluctuations while a subject is questioned, in an effort to determine whether the subject is telling the truth.


The reasons presented to persuade someone that a conclusion is true or probably true.

Refractory Period

A time following orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation.

Sexual Orientation

A person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex, or either sex.

Subjective Well-Being

Individuals' perceptions of their overall happiness and life satisfaction.


Engorgement of blood vessels.

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