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30 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion

STUDY
PLAY
Motivation
goal-directed behavior
Clark Hull
developed the behaviorist theory to drive and motivation
Homeostasis
a state of physiological equilibrium or stability
Drive
an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension
Incentive
an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior
Glucose
a simple sugar that is an important source of energy
Glucostats
neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid
Obesity
the condition of being overweight
Body Mass Index (BMI)
weight divided by height
Set-Point Theory
proposes that body monitors fat cell levels to keep them and weight fairly stable
Settling-Point Theory
proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium
Achievement Motive
The need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence.
Androgens
The principal class of gonadal hormones in males.
Argument
One or more premises used to provide support for a conclusion.
Assumptions
Premises for which no proof or evidence is offered.
Bisexuals
Persons who seek emotional-sexual relationships with members of either sex.
Display Rules
Cultural norms that regulate the appropriate expressions of emotions.
Emotions
A subjective conscious experience (the cognitive component) accompanied by bodily arousal (the physiological component) and by characteristic overt expressions (the behavioral component).
Estrogens
The principal class of gonadal hormones in females.
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
An increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase their activity.
Hedonic Adaptation
An effect that occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantness-unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point, or baseline for comparison, changes.
Heterosexuals
Persons who seek emotional-sexual relationships with members of the other sex.
Homosexuals
Persons who seek emotional-sexual relationships with members of the same sex.
Parental Investment
What each sex invests—in terms of time, energy, survival risk, and forgone opportunities—to produce and nurture offspring.
Polygraph
A device that records autonomic fluctuations while a subject is questioned, in an effort to determine whether the subject is telling the truth.
Premises
The reasons presented to persuade someone that a conclusion is true or probably true.
Refractory Period
A time following orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation.
Sexual Orientation
A person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex, or either sex.
Subjective Well-Being
Individuals' perceptions of their overall happiness and life satisfaction.
Vasocongestion
Engorgement of blood vessels.