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Comp. Ch. 8
Terms in this set (102)
Consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices. Serves as the interface between the user.
A set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources.
The operating system that a computer uses sometimes is called the _____.
One that runs the same on multiple operating systems.
The process of starting or restarting a computer.
When turning on a computer that has been powered off completely, you are performing a _____.
The process of using the operating system to restart a computer.
The core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer's clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer's resources, such as devices, programs, data, and information.
It remains in memory while the computer is running.
These instructions remain on a storage medium until they are needed.
Basic input/output system. Firmware that contains the computer's startup instructions.
Power-on self test
Tests that check the various system components including buses, system clock, adapter cards, RAM chips, mouse, keyboard, and drives. POST.
Technology that uses battery power to retain information when the computer is off.
Specific operating system files.
Contains a list of programs that open automatically when you boot the computer.
The drive from which your personal computer boots.
Boot disk, recovery disk
A special disk that contains a few system files that will start the computer.
Saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state.
Saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer.
Controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen.
Graphic user interface
Interacts with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands. GUI.
Provides an enhanced visual look, additional navigation options, and animation.
A user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions.
The set of commands entered into the computer.
Single user/single tasking
Allows only one user to run one program at a time.
Allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time.
The active program that you are currently using.
The other programs running but not in use are in the _____.
Interrupts a program that is executing and passes control to another program waiting to executed.
Operating system that enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously.
Supports 2 or more processors running programs at the same time.
Continues to operate when one of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost.
With _____, the operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, to function as additional RAM.
The area of the hard disk used for virtual memory is called a _______.
The amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time.
When an operating system spends much of its time paging, instead of executing application software.
Can allocate available storage space on removable flash memory devices as additional memory cache.
A segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device.
Sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer.
Where multiple documents line up at.
Intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them in the queue.
A small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device.
Plug and play
The operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them.
A program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices.
Automatically provides updates to the program.
Free downloadable updates to users who have registered and/or activated their software.
Server operating system
An operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network.
The person overseeing network operations.
Enables computer and network administrators to access all files and programs on the computer or network, install programs, and specify settings that affect all users on a computer or network.
User name, user ID
A unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user.
A private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources.
One that runs only on a specific type or make of computer.
Privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model.
Run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers.
Stand-alone operating system
A complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device.
Client operating system
Work in conjunction with server operating system.
Microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date.
Security from hackers.
Windows DVD maker, Windows media player
Users easily can create DVDS from digital videos. Allows users to listen to internet radio stations, play MP3 and other music formats.
Desktop gadget gallery
Users can display a variety of gadgets on the Windows desktop.
Also known as a widget. A mini-program with minimal functionality that connects to another program or provides information.
Windows 7 starter
Designed for netbooks and other small notebook computers, uses the Windows 7 basic interface and allows users easily to search for files, connect to printers and devices, browse the internet, join home networks, and connect to wireless networks.
Windows 7 home premium
Includes all capabilities of Windows 7 starter and also includes windows aero with its Aero flip 3D feature.
Windows 7 ultimate
Includes all features of Windows 7 home premium, provides additional features designed to keep your files secure and support for 35 languages.
Windows 7 professional
Users in all sizes of businesses are provided a secure operating environment that uses windows aero where they easily can search for files, protect their computers from unauthorized intruders, etc.
Macintosh operating system, Mas OS X
Set the standard for operating system ease of use and has been the model for most of the new GUIs developed for non-Macintosh systems. A multitasking operating system available only for computers manufactured by apple.
A multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970's.
An open-source, popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system.
Mean its code is provided for use, modification, and redistribution.
Windows Server 2008
An upgrade to Windows Server 2007.
Windows Server 2008 standard, server, datacenter, windows web server, itanium-based systems
For typical small-to medium-sized business network. For medium-to large-sized businesses, including those with e-commerce operations. For businesses with huge volumes of transactions and large-scale databases. For web server and web hosting businesses. For computers with 64-bit processors that function as a web server.
The practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers.
Multipurpose operating system, solaris
Both a stand-alone and server operating system. A version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems, a server operating system designed specifically for e-commerce applications.
NetWare, embedded operating system
A server operating system designed for client/server networks. The operating system on mobile devices and many consumer electronics.
Windows embedded CE
A scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications, entertainment, and computing devices with limited functionality.
Windows phone 7
A successor to windows mobile, includes functionality, programs, and a user interface designed for specific types of smart phones.
Runs on smart phones and PDAs. Manages schedules and contacts, phone messages, notes, tasks and address lists, and appointments.
Developed by Apple. An operating system for iPhone and iPod touch, Apple's smart phone and touch screen portable media player, respectively.
Operating system that runs on handheld devices supplied by RIM. Provide PIM capabilities such as managing schedules, contacts, and appointments as well as phone capabilities.
An operating system designed by Google for mobile devices. Email accounts, an alarm clock, video capture, access to Google Apps, Wi-Fi access, and easy web browsing.
A scaled-down Linux operating system designed for smart phones, PDAs, portable media players, internet telephones. Calendar and address book.
An open source multitasking operating system designed for smart phones. Maintain contact lists, save appointments, browse the web, send and receive text and picture messages, e-mail messages, and faxes using a smart phone.
Also called a utility. A type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
File manager, folder
A utility that performs functions related to file management. A specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents.
Shortcut, search utility
An icon on the desktop or in a folder that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file. A program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify.
Image viewer, uninstaller
A utility that allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a photo. A utility that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files.
Disk cleanup, disk defragmenter
Utility searches for and removes unnecessary files. A utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard drive so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster.
When the contents of a file are scattered across 2 or more noncontagious sectors, the file is ______.
Defragmenting, backup utility
Reorganizing so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors. Allows users to copy selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium such as another hard disk, optical disk, USB flash drive, or tape.
Restore utility, screen saver
Reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form. A utility that causes a display device's screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specified time.
Ghosting, personal firewall
Images are etched permanently on a monitor's screen. A utility that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions.
Virus, worm, trojan horse
A potentially damaging computer program that effects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user's knowledge or permission. Copies itself completely. Hides within or looks like a legitimate program such as a screen saver.
Antivirus program, spyware
Protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files. A program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge that secretly collects information about the user, often related to web browsing habits.
Adware, Spyware remover
A program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on web pages, e-mail, or other internet services. A program that detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs.
Adware remover, anti-spam program
A program that detects and deletes adware. A filtering system that attempts to remove spam before it reaches your inbox.
Phishing, phishing filter
A scam in which a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and/or financial information. A program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious web sites.
Pop-up ads, pop-up blocker
An internet advertisement that suddenly appears in a new window in the foreground of a web page displayed in your browser. A filtering program that stops pop-up ads from displaying on web pages.
File compression utility, zipped file, uncompress
Shrinks size of a file. Compressed files that have .zip extension. Unzip.
Media player, Disc burning software
A program that allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on your computer. Writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Disc.
Personal computer maintenance utility
Identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer's performance.
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